With the accumulations of outcomes from archaeological excavations of mountain fortress of three kingdoms period, there have been studies about time-periodic territory range of mountain fortress, difference in the way(method) of construction, defence system and so on from various points of view. This is an empirical study on the construction method of the valley part of stone fortress. First of all, it is required to secure large quantity of fresh water for those who lived at mountain fortress. Especially when builders of fortress construct a fortification at the valley part of stone fortress, in advance they must sufficiently consider several options including the establishment of sustainable water resources. First, when it comes to build a fortification on a ridge[or a slope] of a mountain, you have only to consider a vertical stress. However, when it comes to build a fortification at the valley part of a mountain, You must have more sufficient preparations for the constructing process. Because there are not only a vertical stress but also a horizontal pressure simultaneously. Second, a fortification of mountain fortress built by using unit building stone is a structure of masonry construction like brick construction, and the valley part of it is where the construction of the fortification begins. Third, when it comes to build a fortification at the valley part of a mountain, it seems that they use a temporary method such as coffer dam in oder to prevent the collapse of the fortification due to heavy rain. Furthermore, in response to a horizontal pressure a fortification is built by the way of its plane make an arch, or by piling up the soil with the plate method(類似版築) and earthen wall harder method(敷葉) they increase cross-sectional area of the fortification and its cutoff capacity. In front direction they put the reservoir facility for the fear that the hydraulic pressure and earth pressure are directly transmitted to the fortification. The process of constructing the fortification at the valley part of a mountain is done in the same oder as follows; leveling of ground(整地) ⇨ construction of coffer dam ⇨ construction of the fortification between the both banks of the valley ⇨ construction of the fortification at bottom part of spill way(餘水路) between the both banks of the valley ⇨ construction of spill way(餘水路) & reservoir facility ⇨ construction of the fortification at upper part of spill way between the both banks of the valley. Coffer dam facility seems to be not only the protection device on occasion of flood but also an important criterion to measure the proper height of spill way or tailrace(放水路). This study has a meaningful significance in that it empirically examines the method of reduction of the horizontal pressure which the fortification at the valley part of a mountain takes, the date the construction was done, and wether the changes in climate such as heavy rainfall influence the process of construction.
The Axes and Adzes are the oldest tools since the beginning of human history which is used to cut the tree and make part of architecture such as boards, square timber etc. Nowadays, these old woodworking tools especially "Jagui(자귀)" (adze) has been almost disappeared at the working site of residential and cultural properties. It is necessary to study Korean traditional woodworking tools to keep Korean traditional skill and technology. It has been reviewed the change of shape of "Jagui(자귀)" (adze) from before Samhan (삼한) period to Joseon Dynasty through excavated relics and paintings and summarize as follows: Based on excavation relics of Dahori, both plate type blade and pocket type blade are used for "Tokki(도끼)" (axe) and "Jagui(자귀)" (adze). The excavated "Jagui(자귀)" (adze) from Jeongbaikri 356 tomb, near Pyongyang is prototype of "Jagui(자귀)" (adze) used nowdays which has almost same shape as well as the insert method of blade and handle. The auxiliary handle is inserted to blade and the main handle is inserted to the auxiliary handle which is different from the method of Chinese and Japanese "Jagui(자귀)" (adze). The length of handle of "Jagui(자귀)" (adze) until late Joseon Dynasty is short by which we assume it is used for a sitting position as hand held Jagui and from that time long handle has been introduced for a standing position which is called "Sunjagui(선자귀)". "Jagui(자귀)" (adze) has been used since the beginning of human history but it is almost disappeared at the most of woodworking site which is the crisis of Korean traditional architecture and we have to do something to keep it.
The goal of this paper is to analyze the relationship between pedagogy and the emergence of contemporary Korean architecture after the 1990s. For this purpose, the paper deals with the education and work of two important contemporary Korean architects, Kim Seung Hoy and Choi Wook. Kim and Choi were part of a group of young architects that went abroad in the 1980s to study at the centers of architectural education in Europe and the United States. Through their education and work, the paper discusses the relationship among education, history, and design practice in architecture. During their studies at Michigan University and IUAV in Venice, they were commonly influenced by Colin Rowe through their studios. In the case of Kim Seung Hoy, he was introduced to the Beaux Arts logic of the analytique and esquisse through the teaching of Steven Hurrt, a disciple of Colin Rowe. Choi Wook took studios that involved formal analysis and comparison of Palladio and Le Corbusier. The paper further analyzes their works in Korea by employing the concepts of fragments and systems, ignorance and knowledge. The paper concludes that, in Korean contemporary architecture, fragments and systems, ignorance and knowledge, lie in the middle of ongoing creative process that must distinguished from the West, where architectural history provides an established tradition of systematic knowledge.
Based on travel literatures written by the Joseon literati, the different picture of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Buseok monastery from the one today emerges. Not only do the buildings removed from the monastery today reappear, but the quite different way of the monastic operation comes to light. This observation leads to a speculation that the monastery was functionally and spatially divided into two territories; that of the Immeasurable life hall and of the Dharma hall. The Immeasurable life hall's precinct was built at the site open to the west providing a grand vista of mountainous area. This siting, originally having a close relation with the visualization such as the Sixteen contemplation, not simply gave such a special attraction that the first built architectural composition has lasted through the centuries to the late Joseon, but also granted to the Chwiweon pavilion located at the western side of the precinct a special meditative quality. As the monastery has suffered from a number of heavy duties in the Joseon period, the architectural attraction of the precinct was mobilized to promote the monastic identity as the legitimate monastery first built by Uisang, the founder of Hwaeom Buddhsim. Especially, the Chwiweon pavilion offered a mental space so that the literati might form an affirmative attitude toward the monastery and the monks. The Dharma hall's precinct was built based on the direct replication of the architectural layout presented in liturgy books for the Water and Land rite as well as the Vulture Peak rite. This layout is generally called the Court-type enclosed by four buildings, which has been widely fashioned in the late Joseon period. This characteristic gave to the Dharma hall precinct an arbitrary and anonymous quality, which helped not only avoid the tourism of the literati, but also secure the sacrality and ritual efficacy at occasions of Buddhist rites. This division of territories of the monastery can be understood as the strategic reaction from the monks in order to survive in the age of oppression against Buddhism. In result, the identity of Buseok monastery in the late Joseon was established as the Nine-rank sanctuary where Bodhisattvas permanently resided.