Altar architecture is a kind of sacrificial building, mainly formed in altar. Central architecture of Altar architecture is relatively simple. However, various attached building are necessary for worship. Among them, Sinsil which is a place to seal a God’s tablet, is very important.
The central government of the Joseon Dynasty attempted to define the local sacrificial system and make it customary as a way to strengthen the centralization based on Confucianism. Nonetheless, the altar architecture of the province without detailed regulations, were managed and underwent repairs according to the political situation of the state and local circumstances.
Sinsil, which is an important component of the altar architecture, best reflects this situation. Therefore, it was possible to grasp the situation of the altar architecture of the province in the Joseon Dynasty by analyzing the Sinsil through various documents. As a result of analysis, it was divided into six types. In addition, It is also found that there are temporal relation between these six types.
In this paper, I have reviewed some of the Korean traditional architectural vocabularies that have to be reconsidered in terms of the problem of decode, the problem of meaning, the meaning of explain meaning, and the problem of form analysis.
Especially, correct decode and interpretation of Uigwe’s Korean ancient architecture borrowed character can correct old decode and interpretation. Furthermore, I confirmed that I could correct the Korean ancient architecture vocabulary that was expiscated wrongly. Especially borrowed characters corresponding to 머름[meoreum](paneling) have been known only far away 遠音[meoreum]. In addition, there were also 遠驗[meolheom] ·亇乙軒[meolheon] ·亇乙險[meolheom] · 亇乙音[meoreom], and so on. Furthermore, in the process of decode these notations, it has become possible to assume that the original words of the modern language 머름[meoreum] also came from *멀험[meolheom]. On the other hand, there are many kinds of people like 付叱心[bussim] ·夫叱心[bussim] ·扶叱心[bussim] ·富叱心[bussim] ·富心[bussim]과 北叱心 [bussim] ·北心[bussim]. You can also check the Korean ancient architecture vocabulary. However, corresponding words are difficult to find in modern Korean languages. However, in Jeju dialect, we can confirm the corresponding word. This word was used in the Joseon Dynasty, and confirmed that it is dead language today.
As mentioned above, it is confirmed that there are many misconceptions about the decode and meaning of the architectural vocabulary made of borrowed character in existing architectural dictionaries, Korean dictionaries, and Korean ancient architecture related papers. Also, although the form is being confirmed, it has been confirmed that there are many things that need to be clarified, such as what the decode is, what the meaning is, and the origin I have also confirmed a number of things that need to be properly expomed in the original form, the original word. In the future, those who study Korean ancient architecture vocabulary and traditional architectural vocabulary should also be interested in these things and research it properly.
Soswaewon as a typical villa garden of Korea is a symbolic garden that its diverse compositions imply a specific meaning. This study reviewed the purpose of introduction, meaning, and location of the landscape plants as one of the compositions and covering quite a large part of Soswaewon through 48 Yeong (meaning 48 poems of Soswaewon) and Soswaewondo (meaning Map of Soswaewon).
In 48 Yeong, 27 verses describe landscape plants as their key poetic matters. The most frequently mentioned top 3 plants are bamboos, pine trees, and Japanese apricots. The three plants are called Sehansamwoo(歲寒三友) showing constant fidelity and loyalty in any changing situations, which was regarded to represent the nature of scholars. And also the study examined the frequency and planting location of the plants in Soswaewon by comparing 48 Yeong and Soswaewondo, and the result showed some differences between them. That seems to be caused by the limitations in the comparison, because in case of 48 Yeong, the location and frequency of landscape plants can be examined only through the context of the verses, and Soswaewondo showed different production time from 48 Yeong and expressed them only in a form of drawing.
The plants have symbolic meanings multi-layered and ambiguous. With their symbolic meanings, the landscape plants reviewed through 48 Yeong consistently represent fidelity and loyalty, man of virtue, and hermit. That is, Soswaewon is the garden granting some significance to its compositions by interacting with the things.
One of the reasons why Louis I. Kahn is regarded as a pioneer of Post-Modern Architecture is that his works are interpreted as Structuralism and Post-structuralism in architecture. A. Lüchinger’s interpretation of Structuralism and M. Benedikt’s interpretation of Post-structuralism; especially Deconstruction Theory, in Kahn’s architecture must be proper cases for understanding this context. However, when we precisely analyze their insistence, several fallacies can be found with their incomplete grasp of Kahn’s architectural thinking. The most problematic thing is that they maximize fallibility with focusing only on the analysis of superficial phenomenon, such as formal composition, disposition of space, decorative features, and so on. Therefore, the meaning of architectural essence toward Post-Modern Architecture which Kahn had pursued during his lifetime is sometimes misinterpreted. For this reason, this paper attempt to reanalyze Kahn’s philosophy of architecture deeply with the view of aesthetics which has a key role in both overcoming their fallacies and illuminating the potentiality of Kahn’s architecture.
This study attempted to analyze how dancheong for palace tablets during the Joseon period was designed as related to what plans and what materials were being used. It also investigated how this unique culture formed. The results found the following: First, the tablet dancheong unveiled through literature was designed using diverse techniques such as jinchae and yeokcheongchil. In jinchae, shell powder was applied to the tablet as the first lacquering, and then was colored. Second, in lacquer, maechil, chaesaekchil and jeohyeoptaechil were used. In yeokcheongchil, vegetable black, oil ash and perilla oil were applied to bitumen. Third, during the Joseon Dynasty, dancheong was applied to a tablet after first lacquering just like the danpihoe lacquering of Jiangsu Sheng, China. This tablet dancheong technique was developed based on a unique Korean lacquering culture that had been handed down from ancient times.
Royal banquets under the reign of King Sunjo saw developments in the playacting stage, which exhibited characteristics unique to the transitionary period between Jeongjo and Gojong this period established the framework of the Joseon Dynasty’s playacting stage construction. Starting with the Jagyeongjeon-Hall banquet and continuing into the Year of the Golden Rat banquet, the next-day banquet by the Crown Prince demonstrates a renewed format, with the stage also changing accordingly. This change was substantiated by more assertive use of the Red Blind and gabjang. Previously, the Red Blind has been installed in the palace hall and around the royal courtyard, to form three sides, but as next-day banquets became more frequent under Sunjo, the Red Blind developed and came to be installed in accordance with the hierarchy within the royal family. In the Year of the Golden Rat banquet, the Red Blind was lifted and the throne of the crown prince was situated in the palace hall. In the banquet of the following year, however, the Red Blind was let down and the crown prince’s throne was placed outside, in palace court yard. This seems to have been a gesture to reorient the crown prince’s political standing and restore Sunjo’s sovereignty the following year. Hence, the installation of the Red Blind developed in accordance with the royal hierarchy and ranks under Sunjo’s reign. The gabjang provided the second layer of protection for the playacting stage. The hongjeongju gabjang surrounded the stage in multiple layers and served as a partition. The gabjang from the Year of the Golden Bull banquet, in particular, boasted a unique installation, where it dangled from both sides of the royal palace’s facade. Hongjeongju gabjang, lapis lazuli gabjang, red gabjang, and yellow curtains were installed in the stated order to reflect Sunjo’s 40th birthday as well as the 30-year anniversary of his coronation. The Red Blind and gabjang from Sunjo’s years were positioned in creative ways to reinstate the royal authority, and demonstrated many improvements from those of Jeongjo’s reign.
Ordinary people generally bury or burn placenta when the baby was born. But, Joseon royal family put placenta in pot and then buried it in propitious site praying for good health and long life. After that baby had become the king of Joseon, people built stone figures formed fixed type at that place. It is called gabong-taesil(加封胎室). The purpose of this study is to figure out the type and characteristics of the King Taejo’s taesil in Joseon Dynasty.
The King Taejo’s taesil had built first as soon as Joseon was established circa 1393, and repaired largely in 1689. Since then, this was damaged by the Japanese Empire and assembled in recent days at near place from the original place. Center piece of taesil remains the original form, and the rest of stone figures is assumed to be rebuilt in 1689. But, some materials like sangseok(裳石) and jeonseok(磚石) are assumed that are original stone figures or were made, assembled by the style of then.
Considering most of remained taesil is a relic of the latter part of Joseon Dynasty, the King Taejo’ taesil has high cultural value as the first gabong-taesil of Joseon Dynasty inheriting Goryeo Dynasty type.