The aim of this study is to analyze the planar composition of rectangular formation houses in 8 areas, both cities and counties, in the sphere of Andong and to reveal the characteristics of these houses in each region. This study of the rectangular formation of houses and their characteristics will facilitate an understanding of the general trends of housing in Andong cultural area.. In this study, the subject houses are composed of three parts: Bonchae, Anchae, and Sarangchae, and the author classified the planar types of the houses. The differences in the regional planar types were analyzed through visual and statistical methods. The analyzed results reveal the regional characteristics of the rectangular formation houses in terms of their planar aspects in the Andong region. The distribution showed the greatest preference toward one type out of two types of distribution of Bonchae, Anchae, and Sarangchae. The ratio for the higher distribution was approximately 70%, whereas the ratio for the lower distribution was around 20%. For convenience, the type with a higher distribution rate is referred to as the “major type,” and the type with a lower distribution rate is termed the “minor type.’ The complete-type houses (73%) in Bonchae were a major type there, and the symmetric-type houses (73%) in Anchae were the major type in that location. In addition, the corner-type houses (72%) in Sarangchae were the major type . In the regional distribution of major types and minor types in the 8 regional cities and counties, regional differences were noted. The three regional groups can be divided into A, B, and C according to the distribution ratio. Andong, Bonghwa, and Yecheon belong to region A. that shows a variety of distribution types and a dispersive trend. Yeongyang and Yeongdeok belong to region C that shows a simplified trend.Yeongju and Cheongsong belong to region B
The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the wooden frame structure of Buddhist temple, Kumdang in Youngamsaji which assumed to be built in the 9th century of Unified Silla Dynasty. The remaining site of Kumdang in Youngamsaji is investigated thoroughly with a particular attention to bay size and column distribution. The five ancient Buddhist temples which were built in the same period also have the same frame type as Youngamsaji Kumdang. These five ancient Buddhist temples and Kumdang in Youngamsaji are meticulously investigated in terms of their bay sizes and measuring modules. The framework schema is devised as a conceptual tool to conjecture wooden frame structures of Buddhist temple. A theoretical differentiation between frame type and frame structure is attempted to formulated a wooden frame structure as a stepping-stone for the reconstruction of traditional wooden building. The wooden frame structure of 9C Kumdang in Youngamsaji mainly follows the oldest Korean wooden pavilion, Muryangsujeon in Busuk temple, with a hip and gable roof. The wooden frame structure of 9C Kumdang in Youngamsaji is reconstructed through 3D computer modeling to such an extent that every wooden components of the structure can be 3D printed. The reconstruction also takes reference from the Cai-Fen system in Yingzao Fashi.
With the effect that the Yipsu-ryong(入首龍) of Ju-san(主山) influenced on the layout in the view of geomantic topography(形勢), how Ahn-san(案山) affected the layout plan of the Korean academics of classical learning(書院) is researched. And how the 『Jirisinbeob(地理新法)』which had been written by Ho-sun-sin(胡舜申) was applied to the Korean academics of classical learning in the view of Li and Ch'i(理氣) is studied. In Fengshui, the method to pick out a site and to confirm the direction for building construction was divided into two, one of them was 'the geomantic topography', which included 'Ju-san following type(主山順應形)', 'Ahn-san stressing type(案山重視形)' and 'Ju-san & Ahn-san complex type(主·案山混合形)'. And the other is the 'Rule of direction(向法)'. The Korean academics of classical learning was applied by the geomantic topography of Fengshui for its layout and direction, regardless of political, regional and period factors. So when the Sa-rim(士林) needed to set direction for the Korean academics of classical learning, the ground that was appropriate to the geomantic topography of Fengshui was selected. Therefore, the Sa-rim who was abused in Neo-Confucianism had a mind of stressing geomantic topography of Fengshui and they applied it positively for building construction.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate into the meaning of the New Brutalism sensed in the late church buildings of the Swedish architect Sigurd Lewerentz (1885-1975). St Mark's (1956-64) and St Peter's (1962-66) churches, his grand finale designs, have a unique architectural vocabulary of rough brickwork. The brick treatment is the basis on which Reyner Banham (1966) discussed him concerning the New Brutalism, and the point that this research focuses on. This paper explores the brutalist character of the buildings from two aspects - interpretational level of individual buildings and historical level of a broader view. First, the character of two churches could be interpreted with the phrase of 'play between brutality and sacredness'. The rough surface of brick and mortar in the buildings symbolises brutality and the vault of their chapels' ceiling sacredness. And the two characteristics meet and play on the rough vault surface. Second, in the historical point of view, this paper argues that the buildings made a giant leap for Swedish modern architecture, which had been at a deadlock owing to the compromising attitude of the New Empiricism since 1940s. And the Swedish New Empiricism (or the New Humanism), spread to Britain as "Welfare State architecture" after World War II, brought about reaction of the young British architects such as the Smithsons and became the background that made the new brutalist mood. However, considering that the term of the New Brutalism was first used in Sweden by Hans Asplund, Lewerentz's brutalist late churches - which seemingly had nothing to do with the British nor the Corbusian lineage - are also meaningful in that they confirmed the tendency in its homeland. In conclusion, this paper argues that St Mark's and St Peter's churches with the brutalist characteristics should be regarded as crucial buildings not only in Lewerentz's personal career but also in Swedish and international architectural history.
In the middle of the 8th century, we met the new high-rise building, the 7th storied wooden pagodas in 'Kokubunji' in Japan. I tried to analyze and study this building to show how the wooden pagoda had changed itself because of appearance of new style. The conculusions are as follows; 1. The construction of the foundation was mainly composed namely 'Panchuk'. It was proceeded by two ways. One is the earthen-digging, laying foundations named 'Gulkwangpachuk' and the other is simply laying foundation named 'Jisangpanchuk'. In that period, due to the progress of the technique, we assumed that the main stream is 'Jisangpanchuk'. 2. The elevation of base was mostly the single foundaion from archaeological study. The material was stone. The middle case of pagoda had the base of tile-roofed. We knew the just one pagoda had the base of brick, but that was not main stream. 3. The new device had appeared in the central base stone. It was the stone point. But in that period the existing method, a hole style and the new style was used in the central base stone. This fact is showed that the central government was not hold the reigon(it names 'Kook') in the respect of the technique. 4. The plan scale is classified of 3 group. As a result, the first body is larger, the main-unit and the sub-unit is a equal unit. But smaller, the length of main-unit is longer than the one of sub-unit. And the very small pagoda was build in that period.