The Buddhist cave temple carved into the rock provides a large space for the ritual in general in which a structure of Stupa is built in the center of the space purely for religious worship empty of Sarira, and the temple is formed around this Stupa. Relief-Stupa of the cave temple indicates the similar shape that of Relief-religious worship of flat land temple. However, there appears a small difference in representation since the background of formation of the cave temple differs in that of flat land temple. Specially, Caitya Stupa of currently existing cave temples have been damaged to lose of their original shape only possible to be analyzed the stylistic development through Relief-Stupa from which the characteristic of Stupa could be understood. The early cave temple could be characterized with a balanced structure consists of upturn bowl, steeple stone with simple drum & Hamikawasnagae, in which it appears strongly the detail factor characteristics of drum & steeple of having system with Caitya Stupa. In the post cave temple, the subject of worship moved to statue of Buddha due to the influence of Gandhara, Mathura art which reduced the importance of Stupa. This illustrates in Relief-stupa as well the style change as well as changes in detail factor. The sculpture appeared at the limited location either the wall of Caitya shrine or pillar in vihara cave with stronger decorative meaning. Contrast to the Relief Stupa of early flat land temples or the cave temples mentioned above sculptured with symbolism, however, the post cave temple showed the relief structure based on the plan of flat plan.
This paper is to review the conclusions of the Athens conference that has so far contributed to the conservation world. It is normally called the conclusions of the Athens conference as the Athens charter. But the conclusions of the Athens are not as same as the Athens Charter regarding the contents. The former had more valuable contents than the latter regarding historic monuments. And the report of the Athens conference including 56 articles and 500 pages with 55 photos was published in 1933 by the International Museums Office. But little attention has been given to the report of the Athens conference. Therefore the point I want to make is to review to the report in order to understand the agenda of the conference and to examine the Anastylosis in Acropolis. In conclusion, these agendas and the articles in the report show us that the conference was sort of milestone with some advanced modern philosophical and technical concepts about conservation and restoration of historic monuments. Also when the term of anastylosis turns to reconstruction in archaeological sites, we are going to face with the problems of authenticity.
This study examines the construction method of lime tomb of royal tombs in the Choseon Dynasty based on reference. This was primarily published as 『The Five Manners and Courtesy of the Annals of Sejong』as examples, which were followed by the influence of Koryo's culture in the beginning foundation of Choseon, were organized in the time of Sejong; and later, in the time of Sungjong, 『The National Five Manners and Courtes y』was published. Such old reference explains the stone materials and construction method of the royal tomb's pit yet there were not many studies regarding the pit of royal tomb in the Choseon Dynasty. And there exists no historical research or reference study in regard to the pit of royal tomb which is formed as a lime tomb. This is believed to be impossible to excavate the royal tomb since ancestral ritual formalities are still given by the descendants and because of our country's culture of giving ancestral ritual formalities which value formalities and filial duty. However, the current excavation of Guhui Tomb, which was the early burial site, was important since it gives an opportunity to look at the shape and structure of lime tombs in the Choseon Dynasty. Thus, this study, based on the excavation of Guhui Tomb, will look into the construction method of the pit of lime tomb and will examine the structure, shape, construction method, etc. of the lime tomb which was formed after the time of Sejo in a way with reference history. This is an important data to learn the construction method of limb tomb of royal tombs in the Choseon Dynasty and is believed to have a very important value as historical materials as to understanding the structure of the pit of royal tombs in the Choseon Dynasty which yet has not been excavated.
The purpose of this paper is to trace the architectural origin of the Bosung College Library (1935~37), which is currently used as Graduate School Building of Korea University. So far, numerous books have repeatedly described that the library was modelled on a Duke University library, but without any serious consideration. Through literature review, field-trip and archives investigation, this research discovered new critical facts concerning the origin of the building. First, Dong-Jin Park, the architect for Bosung College, saw a photograph of the Duke library in a Duke University catalog possessed by Chun Suk Auh, Professor of the college at that time. Second, the Duke library that he saw in the catalog, which might possibly be Bulletin of Duke University (Feb. 1931), is certainly the present Perkins Library (1930) in Duke University West Campus. Third, the architect probably referred not only to the library but also to other Duke buildings such as School of Medicine and The Union, of which photographs were also published impressively in the Bulletin. Although the Bosung College Library was inspired by the Duke buildings, however, it is undoubtedly a creative design work by the architect Park. Arguably, these findings broaden our view of Korean architectural history in the modernization period, and it is more than a confirmation of just one building's origin.
This study aims to find methodical similarities between pop art and Robert Venturi's works. Pop art and Robert Venturi's works gave attention to periodical changes and wanted to communicate with the public. This study approaches a topic from psychological viewpoints, especially visual dissonance. The results are as follows: 1. Manufactured Products ; Commercial Ornaments → Character Changes in Experienced Stimulation 2. Daily Elements ; Traditional Elements(Classic) → Contextual Effect of Canonic Representation In these cases, visual dissonance attracted a lot of public attention, and people would develop new meanings of objet. Pop art and Robert Venturi's works indicated value change in post-industrial society, therefore, this study can help to understand the correlation.
The purpose of this research is to analyse the changes of ground level of Sungnyemun, the South Gate of Seoul City, and the principles of arch scale through the investigation based on the old records in Joseon dynasty. The result of this research is as follows: 1) The ground level of Sungnyemun, refers the level of foundation stone which was confirmed as original which is verified through the excavation conducted in 2005, maintained 1m's elevated level in 15～16 century and its elevated date presumed in King Sejong's reign(1418～1450). 2) The ground level of Sungnyemun is closely related with the royal funeral ceremony. 3) The width and height scale of Sungnyemun arch is about the ratio of 1 to 1. 4) During the Joseeon dynasty, Sungnyemun was referred as standard of other city wall gate. And it has similar architectural characteristics with Heunginjimun (or East Gate) of Seoul and Hwaseong Janganmun.
Historic buildings are history of human kind and a crystal of culture. Therefore, we have a responsibility and obligation to succeed to descendants. Once such heritage is damaged, it is hard to restore its original form. Thus, various attempts to preserve its value and authenticity have been made internationally. Among these, the international preservation tendency of historic building in terms of materials has been given to the preservation of materials as well as the preservation of appearance. In accordance with such trend, Korea also presented an equivalent general principle, and has managed historic buildings with the separate related instruction. The most general method to preserve historic buildings in Korea is a repair work. Since the foundation of Korea, the repair work tendency has been carried out in the principle of phenomenon change and original form maintenance. But, such tendency focuses on the appearance such as style, structure and trimming method, and there is insufficient consideration on the authentic preservation of materials. Accordingly, this study attempts to examine preservation principle and methods in the repair works, and also to investigate the afforestation condition for the restoration work. And, by suggesting preservation method of authentic materials, it aims to prepare the reference for the future repair work.
Jean Renaudie was an French architect who designed many urban social housing in France, especially in the city of Ivry-sur-Seine, near Paris, with Renee Gailhoustet, co-responsible as the architect of this city, communist city from long time. He was formed as an architect by the influence of Auguste Perret and Marcel Lods, two french architects, great specialist of the structure of concrete. He formed the Atelier Montrouge with Pierre Riboulet, Gerard Thurnauer, Jean-Louis Verret, and proposed many innovative projects, based on geometrically pure forms and masses. After he joined Renee Gailhoustet, the architect of the City of Ivry-sur-Seine, as a co-responsible for the redevelopment of this ideologically communist city. His urban housing concept approached to take the function as a space to welcome the urban life of the resident, not to offer the physical provision of housing repeating the simple housing unity. He accentuated the social role of Housing project not only as the level of a personal home but also as that of an urbanism. He offered divers choice opportunity to the citizen by the urban functional complex through his efforts to make characteristic complex of urban housing, and by the consequence, the innovative result was done which ameliorated the quality of life for resident. This is an exceptional example, not only in France but even in whole over the world. But the maintenance of building against the oldness and the closing shop of inside commercial zone of Jeanne Hachette became a problem, not only that of physical amelioration but also that of spiritual conservation of the works of Jean Renaudie.