The purpose of this study is to estimate the dimensions of the Protruding distance of Seven-layered Gongpo of Baoguosi Temple Main Hall in Ningbo, China, and to analyze the meaning of the dimension through the 『Yingzaofashi(營造法式)』and other similar cases. Through this study, it is clarified that the 『Yingzaofashi』 stipulates the limited use of the structural role of Ha-ang, but Baoguosi Temple Main Hall has expanded the structural role of Ha-ang actively by increasing the total Protruding Distance and effectively controlling the Protruding Distance of the layer where Ha-ang is placed. And as a result, the effect of lowering the total height of the protruding part was confirmed.
This study explores the space and society of Seorin-bang(瑞麟坊), using the Hanseong-bu family registry from the Gwangmu period to demonstrate the urban organizational units used during the late J oseon dynasty known as Seo(署)-Bang(坊)-Gye(契)-Dong(洞)-Tong(統)-Ho(戶). It seeks to examine how Seorin-bang's space and society changed with time. First, the study offers approximate demarcation for Gye and Dong through spatial verification of Bang-Gye-Dong-Tong-Ho of Seorin-bang in late J oseon Dynasty, whose precise locations were formerly undetermined. Second, it explores the relationships between Bang-Gye-Dong-Tong-Ho which has been widely understood to be hierarchical by previous studies, and classifies the relationship dynamics between Gye and Dong into four types. Third, the study finds that Seorin-bang retained much of its urban structure including roads, plots, and streams and maintained stable population distribution under the Japanese colonial rule, and continuously served as place of residency for many throughout the Gwangmu period. This study has major implications in that it illustrates space and society of Seorin-bang by converting the family registry from the late J oseon Dynasty into spatial data, and observes its changes subsequent to the Japanese colonial rule.
This study is to find out the process of changes concerning the cadastral records that consist of the cadastre, the cadastral map and various registers of land in Japanese Colonial Period. The cadastre and cadastral map were the most important part of them and became the basis of cadastral records. These two registers were first made out according to the Project of Colonial Land Survey in the year 1912. As the influx of foreign Weights and Measures was greatly influenced by the foreign concession since 1876, the traditional units of the Weights and Measures had abolished finally. The extortion of sovereignty led a rapid change to the Weights and Measures in 1910. Japan compelled us to change into Japanese System of Measurement. From that time on, Lot(筆地) and Pyeong(坪) were settled down on the registers of land.
This study investigates the types and spread of framed structures of gable roofs meeting at right angle showed in old architecture and documentary paintings of houses, which were well liked in the early Joseon Dynasty. The conclusions of this study were as follows. First, the framed structure of gable roof meeting at right angle can be divided or recognized in 4 types according to their structure’s size and purlin’s position. Three of those types were noted to be in Seoul. Second, the framed structure of gable roofs meeting at right angle begun from the awareness of their independence from one another. Each space was divided based on their functions. Therefore, it could be extended in various forms, not only in the square plan physique but also in many different forms. And allowed free plan configuration regardless of column layouts or size of structure. Third, 5 purlins and 3 purlins crossing structure were preferred in Han-yang, the early Joseon Dynasty. It is related to the specific construction conditions of urban houses, such as the slope of land, limited land area, and economic power. Fourth, urban housing techniques were diffused throughout the country by officials who lived in Kae-gyeong and Han-yang at the end of Goryeo and early Joseon Dynasty. In other regions, framed structure of gable roof meeting at right angle households decreased, but in some regions of Gyeongsang-province, framed structure of gable roof meeting at right angle has maintained with Staggered purlin.
This study examines the site and erection of the Government Complex Seoul which was a project attempted to assemble dispersed government buildings in a certain place. The study focuses on the fact that the project is situated between the 1960s’ making of capital Seoul and Seoul urban planning, and the way how the project achieved symbolism in capital Seoul. The project, one of the 1960s’ Major Government Buildings, led both plan of capital Seoul and transforming city Seoul. The 1960s’ Major Government Building Plan had identical drive with the 1950’s Major Government Building Plan, however the 1960s’ had additional layer: Seoul urban planning. After restoration of the Capital building, Sejongro the capital street was planned to the site arranging government offices. The Government Complex Seoul was set to be a modern building on a site with historical context according to the plan. Because of the site, the Government Complex Seoul was constructed in aware of other buildings that represented a competitive high-rise atmosphere in the late 1960s, including the Capital building nearby. PAE International’s plan was completed through a series of design modification, and it boasted a vertical aspect, unlike the horizontal-looking plan that was already won after the design competition. The Government Complex Seoul tried to acquire the symbolism in the central space of the capital Seoul and high-rised city Seoul. “The new construction method” was a requirement to achieve the height.
Pagodas in Myanmar can be largely divided into Zedi and Pato. Zedi is a developed form of the early domed pagodas in India and Sri Lanka, which can be found in the introduction of Buddhism in Myanmar and the comparison of early pagodas in India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. On the other hand, Pato is where statues of Buddha were enshrined, which is why many scholars referred to it as a temple. However, this study proposes that Pato shall be referred to as a temple-style pagoda in a form unique to Myanmar, based on the origin of Pato, definition of pagodas, and Sarira Enrichment Record of Pato. Moreover, it seems more appropriate to name this type of structure Stupa Temple(塔殿) or Stupa Shrine(塔堂) rather than a Buddhist temple(佛殿) or Buddhist shrine(佛堂) for clear distinction. Pato, or temple-style pagodas, has a Śikhara-style structure at the center like Ananda Pato upon entering the Pagan (Bagan) kingdom period, on which Zedi-style structures are built. As a result of examining the integration of various Buddhist schools and religions focused on Theravada during the period of King Anawrahta and King Kyanzittha, the Śikhara-style structure is a symbolic representation of the fact that Theravada embraced Hinduism. The common features shared by pagodas in Myanmar are the centrality of place and the verticality of yǎngtiān (looking up to the sky) in terms of shape. All temples are placed at the most important and central space, and their forms represent strong religious yǎngtiān and verticality. These are the features that stand out most among various pagodas in Buddhist countries.
Foreign Reception Hall in Gyeongungung Palace was constructed during 1899-1902 according to Yesigjangjeong (禮式章程), Korean Empire's modern diplomatic protocol. This bulilding is a case worthy of notice, because its construction process was written in Jubon(奏本), Korean Empire's official document. Yesigjangjeong(禮式章程) regulates the process of diplomat's audience with Emperor Gojong. The process suggested that Foreign Reception Hall was designed as the place of the end as well as the beginning for audience. According to the process, diplomat came through main gate, Daehanmun and outer gate of main hall(Junghwajeon Hall, Audience Hall), then arrived at the stair to Foreign Reception Hall. After waiting time in the hall, he was going to be granted an audience with Emperor. And he exited through Foreign Reception Hall as the reverse way. This hall was constructed as western-style. Subcontracted carpenters and wood sculptors and laborers from China represents that chinese workers were prevailed in the government construction at that time. And modern building materials, such as glass, colored brick, sanitary wares and lightings were applied, which showed the new landscape in the middle of Gyeongungung Palace. Above all, official documents related with this hall reveals Korean Empire supervised this construction for diplomatic protocol. That is the identity of western-style buildings in Gyeongungung Palace.
The stylobate for expanding the external stage area was the most frequently installed installment out of the installments installed for royal court ceremonies. The stylobate was installed for various ceremonies such as funeral rites, ancestral rites, customary formalities, state examination, feasts for celebrating a honored guest of the court, queen’s silkworm cultivating ceremony, heir appointment, the presentation of honorary titles for the king or queen in honor of their merits, and entertainment of foreign dignitaries. The exact period stylobates came to be used for the play stage. The stylobate consists of the 紅座板, 屯太木, 竹欄間, 足木, and the 層橋. Depending on the 足木, the substructure of the stylobate, the stylobate could be divided into the 長足木, 中足木, 短足木, 平足木type. The detail structure of the stylobate changed in form from the jokmok and duntaemok that appeared until the time of King Seonjo, into the 長屯太木, 短屯太木, and the 短短屯太木 during the time of King Heonjong. With the introduction of the 中足木, materials began to become more segmented and the structure stronger. According to existing records, while the height of the stylobate was not significantly high prior to King Seonjo’s reign, the 十四層雲橋and the 十三層層橋introduced during the time of Emperor Gojong was designed to reflect his rank in external ceremonies while the eight story step bridge was exhibited in internal ceremonies to reflect the rank of Queen Mother Sinjeong. From here, we can deduce that the fourteen and thirteen story cloud bridges representing the king was of a higher grade than the eight story step bridge which represented the queen mother. Finishing by adding boards to the lower part of the stylobates began to appear in the time of King Seonjo. During King Heonjong’s reign, the lower finish became gentrified with a thin board called 修粧板, and yeomupan 廉隅板for decorating the edges of the stylobates were installed. Such style of finishing the lower part of the stylobate with boards mostly appeared in elaborate feasts 進饌and celebrations 進宴within the royal court 內宴. The stylobates appeared to have served not only practical purposes such as expanding the stage area, but also as installments which realize the authority and prestige of the royal crown. They were installed according to the purpose of the ceremony and the rank of the participant. In short, stylobates became established during King Seonjo’s reign, became segmented and gentrified during King Heonjong’s reign, and began to take height variations during Emperor Gojong’s reign to reflect the rank and authority of the king and queen mother. As such, it can be considered another characteristic of Joseon Dynasty architecture.
The study on the government office building in Chungcheong Suyeong(忠淸水營) is very rare. How were the Gaeksa(客舍) and Dongheon(東軒) which are representative government office buildings in Suyeong, maintained and what was the aspect of it, while passing through the upheaval period of the end of Joseon(朝鮮)? And where was the original place and was there any change in use? It is so regrettable that these subjects were not figured out yet. So I thought it is very important task to figure out its actual aspect by investigating the maintain state of the Gaeksa and Dongheon and the change of their places. So this study examined the related historical records and, based on it, analyzed 「Ocheon GoonJi(鰲川郡誌)」in various view points. Through this analysis, this study could figured out the maintain aspect of the gaeksa and dongheon and the change of their places, and be able to deduce the other change of the government office building. This study could assume the places of each government office buildings by comparing this investigated result and the analyzed result of the original cadastral map in various view points. As the result of the study done by this method, this study confirmed the maintain state of the Gaeksa and Dongheon in Chungcheong Suyeong while passing through the upheaval period of the end of Joseon. And this study figured out the places of the Gaeksa and Dongheon, and be able to confirm their places by the lot number on the original cadastral map. Along with this, this study could estimate Jo(趙) family's confliction with the residents at that time by verifying the lot numbers of the Sapaeji(賜牌地) which this family received from the government. And among the names of the government office buildings, for the Jangkyocheong(將校廳) which is in dispute because of the name, this study figured out that the author of 「Ocheon GoonJi」made a mistake in writing Dongheon.
This study investigates the relationship of two architectures ‘Kim Sa-haeng’ and ‘Park Ja-cheong.’ They were the architects whose architecture were established and well known however they were not acknowledged by the people. Because they were not revealed under the large-scale national construction in complicated circumstances at home and abroad. The results were as follows; First, Kim Sa-haeng who was an overseas architect in Yuan dynasty stood out in all areas of architecture. Particularly in making royal tombs; His works were recognized as the most beautiful royal tombs ever existed and was later on followed by the Joseon dynasty. Second, Park completed the construction of Joseon's by faithfully reflecting on the discussed process of Neo-Confucian while coming after the time of the construction of Kim Sa-haeng. Third, although Kim Sa-haeng was a vassal of the Buddhist nation in Goryeo, he built the Moon-myo, a Confucian inspired temple of Joseon. Park Ja-cheong, who continued to build Kim Sa-haeng's architecture, reproduced Kim Sa-haeng's confucian's temple of Joseon dynasty while modifying it according to the situation in Joseon dynasty. The constructions of the two architects' monuments continues unabatedly. Their architecture has continued without massive changes.
During the 1950s, the North Koreans rebuilt their capital—Pyongyang—as a modern city under the principle of Soviet urban design. One North Korean architect, Kim Jung-hee, has been widely credited since the late 1980s as the master architect of the General Plan of the city’s reconstruction. While Kim Jung-hee played a crucial role in its reconstruction, his heroic image as the founding architect of Pyongyang is considerably attributed to North Korea’s mythical narratives rather than his historical activities. This paper argues that Pyongyang’s postwar urban design was not a work made by a single actor, Kim Jung-hee; rather, it was a long-term collaborative project in which a team of North Korean architects and Soviet technical advisors took their respective roles. Beginning in the late 1980s, North Korea, which had been struggling with economic decline and an increasing sense of lagging behind in its rivalry with its Southern counterpart, used heroic narratives during the 1950s’ postwar reconstruction period as an important propaganda tool for their regime. In this mythical narrative of Pyongyang’s reconstruction, massive economic and technical aid from other communist countries has often disappeared, and the memory of the architects who contributed greatly to the reconstruction but later purged in North Korea have also completely vanished. Kim Jung-hee, meanwhile, remained in this epic as the founding architect who rebuilt the city in faithful accordance with the leadership of Kim Il Sung.