It can be meaningful that this study attempted to analyze the use cases and forms based on the literature on the painting walls of the Joseon Dynasty, and attempted basic research to prevent disaster damage using traditional elements. This study summarizes the use of the Hwabangbyeok wall of J oseon Dynasty as follows. First, Hwabangbyeok wall was used from the early J oseon Dynasty and was adopted by palaces and other major state facilities to cope with fire and theft. Second, the Hwabangbyeok Wall was also referred to as the wall below the lower part of the wall, and was constructed with the purpose of preventing disasters from outside. Third, in an analysis of the Daeseongjeon shrine of Hyanggyo, many construction cases were identified mainly in the Gyeonggi area, which is assumed to be based on production and construction conditions along with local climatic factors. Fourth, it can be said that the Hwabangbyeok wall was basically adopted to prevent comprehensive disaster risk reduction in case of external intrusion and fire.
As China enters the 21st century, China is strengthening its position as a world power in an international position. However, there are still problems with Three Agricultural(Agricultural, Rural, Farmer) and unbalanced urban and rural villages. China, as one of the largest and most populous nations, values the development of three farms. Strategies such as “The Construction Of New Socialist Countryside” were a policy to solve rural problems, But they were not enough to achieve breakthrough results. In order to achieve more effective results, the Central Committee of THE STATE COUNCIL proposed The Document No.1 of “Opinion on the Implementation of The Rural Revitalization Strategy” in February 4, 2018 and published “The Rural Revitalization Strategy (2018-2022 )”. The Yanbian region, which is the subject of this study, is the home of Korean-Chinese tribes and the Korean autonomous region. As a minority of Chinese ethnic minorities, the Korean-Chinese has their own unique culture, and Yanbian has distinct regional characteristics. As The Rural Revitalization Strategy was raised, Villages is showing positive change in accordance with policy implementation in Yanbian. This study analyzed the current status of policy implementation of The Rural Revitalization Strategy in Yanbian area and analyzed the policy contents and performances based on the of Yanbian Daily News. Based on the results of the analysis, I would like to help in suggesting a more rational development direction and building the villages.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between conservation activities and the development of tourism in the modern period in the Korean peninsula. The main building of Jangansa Temple, located in Mt. Geumgang, was repaired in the 1930s. During the repairs, the Japanese General-Government actively engaged in the development of Mt. Geumgang and raised funds for the operation of the Korean Peninsula through tourism revenue. The repair work was carried out under the influence of the Mt. Geumgang development project. And its influence is revealed by reviewing official documents recording repair work. This study tried to clarify the relationship between development and repair work through official documents.
This research focuses on the life and works of architect Yi Hunwoo, who was active in early 20th century. Yi has been previously mentioned in a few research documents, but not as a main subject of interest. Thanks to digitalized historic databases, the authors of this research were able to access more information about Yi. It was discovered that he was born in Korea in the late 19th century and then attended the Nagoya Higher Technical School in Japan. After repatriation, he participated in a few public projects in Korea as an in-house architect at the Governor-General’s office, then started his own practice and produced his individual projects. He also contributed articles on innovations in residential design to newspapers. Chronologically, his activities as an architect preceeded those of Park Gilyong, who has been conventionally regarded as the first Korean modern architect so far. This research would like to establish Yi Hunwoo as a historic figure whose professional career spanned the earlier stage of the Korean modern architecture, based on the records of his life and professional activities. The authors do not wish to present the architectural analysis nor evaluation of his works, which will be subject to future researches.
Paldalmun gate was built in 1794 as the southern gate of Suwon Hwaseong. The signboard’s paintworks of Paldalmun gate was applied to the signboard of the state-run building in the 18th century. The signboard of Paldalmun gate was repainted along with the building when repaired in 1969. In that time, the signboard’s paintworks during the reign of Jeongjo era was transformed. The purpose of this study is to restore the image of Jeongjo era paintworks on the Paldalmun’s signboard, which has been modified since the 1960s due to modification. For the purpose of the examination, we examined the traces of paintworks remaining on the signboard of Paldalmun gate and examined several state-run signboards decorated with ‘Yukhwamoon’ paintings similar as the signboard of Paldalmun gate, which made around the 18th century. Through the above-mentioned researches, typical color features were identified in the decorated with ‘Yukhwamoon’ paintings on signboard in the 18th and 19th centuries. In addition, the type of pigment used in the signboard’s paintwork of Paldalmun gate was verified through the 『Hwaseong Seongyeok Uigwe(華城城役儀軌)』 and the 『Han-gul Jeongri Uigwe(한글整理 儀軌)』, while analyzing the characteristics of age-related deterioration according to the type of paintworks in various traces of pigment coatings remaining on the signboard of Paldalmun gate.
This study examines the transitional situation that can be seen from the palace operation in early Joseon Dynasty. The first decades of Joseon after the nation was founded differ from the Joseon Dynasty as a whole, but rather similar with the Goryeo Dynasty. By examining “The History of Goryeo(高麗史),” it showed that palace operation during the Goryeo Dynasy was marked by the fact that a separate palace was built and resided in despite the existence of the Bongweol(本闕, main palace) as the central palace. The separation of the parent’s generation and the children’s generation was shown through the establishment of one’s own palace. Such trait of Goryeo affected palace construction directly after the founding of Joseon. This can be shown from the characteristic of palace operation by generation. The construction of the Changdeokgung Palace(昌德宮) of King Taejong, as his own palace, is an example. Afterwards, the palace system of Joseon was established, and the space of the king and the crown prince was merged through ritual reform during the reign of King Sejong. However, the space for the parents of the king were considered separate, and this influence continued to the reign of King Seongjong. The construction of Changgyeonggung Palace(昌慶宮) during the reign of King Seongjong is an event where the king proclaimed the separation with his mother and grandmother.
In Korean traditional architecture, the Gong-po style is divided into the Jusimpo, Dapo and Ikgong. Jusimpo and Chulmok-Ikong, where only Gong-po is placed on the column, differ in form of Gong-po depending on the viewpoint. Since ‘Chulmok-Ikgong’ has been generally regarded as ‘One Chulmok-Two Ikgong’, the precedent researches have been conducted mainly on ‘One Chulmok-Two Ikgong’ in the Gong-po style classification. However, when it comes to ‘One Chulmok’, the style of Ikgong can be organized from the one to three steps and this study is particularly for examining the occurrence and transformation of ‘One Chulmok-One Ikgong’. One of the case study sites, Bonghwa Cheongamjeong was originally built in the 16th century, and is believed to have been repaired from ‘Non Chulmok-One Ikgong’ to ‘One Chulmok-One Ikgong’. Since the beam linked directly to the upper part of a capital, it does not connect the eave trave(architrave) in between. Also, Soro which supports Jangyeo(the architrave strip) has been placed and linked in comparatively lower position. It is confirmed by the signigicant difference in the hierarchy of Gong-po forms in one architecture. The Jeonju-Hyanggyo Daeseongjeon, which was built in the 17th century among the subjects, was similar with ‘One Chulmok-One Ikgong’, but it was found to be the type of Jusimpo form because the bottom of the beam and the top of the Ikong are apart. And Gongan is confirmed at Cheomcha. In the 17th century, it can be seen that Heot-Cheomcha disappeared and Ikgong was started to use as a constant figure. The end of the 18th century, it can be seen that it was changed into a ornament added on Haeng-gong, being seen in the case of Hwaseong Dongjangdae. In conclusion, it can be seen that ‘One Chulmok-One Ikgong’ were developed in both the Jusimpo and Ikong style. The transformation into ‘One Chulmok-One Ikgong’ was inevitable consequence related with an elevation difference between the eave trave and the column trave.