The Chosun Dynasty established and implemented measures to prevent Japanese invasion into the southern coast. To this end, the number of naval vessels and the number of ships were increased, and a shipyard(船所) was constructed to protect the safety of the vessels. The shipyard is a port facility where military vessels are anchored and repaired, as well as public facilities that are needed for military training on public and land, as well as facilities for storing supplies and equipment needed for ships on land and defense at the port entrance. Despite being such an important facility for national defense, Shipyard has not been noticed. Studies have shown that the position of shipyard is divided into the riverside type and the riverbank type, which is due to the topographical features of Korea. The repair cycle of naval vessels, the carrying out of Yeonhun(prevent the water from decaying the part of the ship, a raw tree was burned to smoke) and the place of sea training also affected the construction of the Gul River(掘江). The space structure of shipyard is divided into port entry facilities for monitoring and controlling at the entrance to the harbor, border facilities for folding and repairing military vessels, and land facilities for holding land exercises and administrative work of military vessels and military equipment.
The former administration office building of Kyeong-seong-bu(京城府) was a building converted from the Japanese residency-general's of Kyeong-seong(京城理事廳) which was originally built as the Japanese consulate in J oseon(日本領事館). It was too worn and too small as a Kyeong-seong-bu administration office even with several annexes. Kyeong-seong-bu tried to build a new big administration office building at the vacant north side of the same site, which was closely faced to the rotary in front of the Bank of J oseon(朝鮮銀行前廣場). But this trial was ended in vain due to insufficient budget. Therefore Kyeong-seong-bu built a new administration office building in another site and moved to it in 1926 with debts. For paying for the debts Kyeong-seong-bu sold the former site after partitioning with new roads through it. As a result the nature of the former site and its surroundings was changed. This study traces the changes and inquires how the authorities in the colonial J oseon and various commercial powers of Kyeong-seong-bu behaved for their own interests in the meantime. It makes use of the historical records and documentary literatures between early 1910s and early 1930s.
Considering the situation in the early 20th century when the existing urban system centered on urban areas began to change, the biggest factors causing urban structural changes in urban areas are construction of railroad and urban dismantling. The change process of Eupseong, in the microscopic viewpoint, can be understood as a process of change in the course of dismantlement of town's demarcation, improvement of accessibility and urban expansion due to the construction of railroads, process of urban expansion following the crumbling boundaries and structural changes. This study aimed to look at the transformation process of the Eupseong in the early 20th century, focusing on the demolition of the castle and the railway construction from a microscopic point of view of city.
Seongjeonggak Hall in Changdeokgung Palace, although built after the Japanese Invasion in 1592, displays the architectural style and structure of Early Joseon period. It did not include ondol (Korean floor heating system) and contained Early Joseon style window frames. Later, King Jeongjo installed ondol as he repaired the building into a more convenient office. The initial construction of Seongjeonggak Hall was based on the architectural ideology of the Early Joseon Period, which divided up the space according to the season. Thus, the initial structure of the building consisted of a joint of a one-story building and a two-story building with the top floor of the latter specialized for hot and humid season. The two-story building was called ‘chimnu(寢樓)’, and its top floor was called ‘nu-chimsil(樓寢室)’
This study examines the restoration project of Sokkuram, and introduces its preliminary plans by the architect Pai Ki Hyung. The restoration project started in 1958 with an inquiry committee of the restoration project, and was completed in 1964. Despite having undergone extensive repair work under Japanese supervision from 1913 and 1923, the repair work caused water leakages inside Sokkuram, and regular cleaning work that began in 1933 caused a lot of damage to the sculpture. In result of the surveys, the top priority of this project was to protect the sculptures inside Sokkuram by improving the environment of the cave. At that time, the architect Mr. Pai participated as a head of the fourth field surveyors to plan the restoration project and to design the preliminary plans. He proposed the installation of a double dome structure to prevent further water leakages on the concrete addition that was built up around the grotto by the Japanese. However, in 1961, the Cultural Heritage Committee of Korea examined the plans of Mr. Pai and immediately rejected them. The factors of the rejection were the omitting of entrance design, system of new double dome structure that presses the existing structure, and these changes that had to be made outside of the drainage plans. The repair work of Sokkuram began in 1961, and the main construction was building double dome structure and entrance installation. In this we realize that Mr. Pai’s double dome structure plans were very important key concept of this project. This study attempts to demonstrate the double dome installations that Mr. Pai initially proposed, which ultimately remains as emblematic factors of Sokkuram’s legacy.
Modern Joseon Architecture is North Korea's unique building style that interprets Korean traditional architecture in a modern way, and its most distinctive design feature is the Paljak roof that decorates the upper part of the buildings. This paper argues that continuous attempts at characterizing the nature of traditional Korean architecture in the late 1950s and early 1960s developed the theoretical rationale for the exclusive use of the Paljak roof in Modern Joseon Architecture. It also argues that the construction of the Pyongyang Grand Theater and the Okryu Restaurant during this period became a decisive moment for the formalization of the Paljak roof. The double roof rafters and gables and the "cheerful yet solemn" roofline were considered as main characteristic features of the Korean roof and the Paljak roof perfectly fits this description. Particularly, in North Korean society where Kim Il Sung became idolized as an impersonalized deity, an anecdote in which Kim Il Sung fixed a prominent gabled roof in the Pyongyang Grand Theater into a Paljak roof has allowed for the roof to gain an exclusive status. Hence, almost all Modern Joseon Architecture since the 1960s accepted the Paljak roof’s monopoly position, rather than experimenting with other traditional roof types.
The Sacheonwangsa temple in Silla was completed in 679, just after the unification of the Three Kingdoms. In recent years, we have been critically considering the history of the chronology based on the existence of ‘Geumdang of the previous generation’, which has emerged through the research report of the Sacheonwangsa temple. It is the one to reconsider the construction process of the Sacheonwangsa temple centering on the re-interpretation of the construction time and the character of the first stage of the foundation which was confirmed from within the Geumdang site. The results of this study are as follows : 1)The “Chang(創) of Sacheonwangsa temple” in [Three Affairs that Queen Seondeok had already known] that it is presumed that the construction of the Sacheonwangsa temple, which was designed by Anham before 640 years ago, will convey the fact that the first of the King Munmu's reign (661∼) has been finalized after the initial discussion. 2)Although the theories after excavations are predicated on the existence of ‘Geumdang of the previous generation’, there is no reason to believe that a lasting predecessor building with roof and pillar walls on predecessor buildings is considered to have been built. The foundation was associated with the “build a temple out of coloured silk(以彩 帛營寺)” i.e. ‘Jochang(祖創)’ in 670 years before the construction plan was formally finalized. However, it is presumed that the remains of the platform construction on the premise that it will be used on the construction of Geumdang. 3)The decision to ‘rebuilding(攺刱)’ based on a formal construction plan is determined to be from 670 to 672 years. The maintaining of the original cathedral axis line, to the north on the boundary of the southern limit of the foundation flat portion, the result of developing and embodied the relative position of the Geumdang in the newly determined cathedral unfold and embody, the center of the building base and Geumdang, it is presumed that the centers of them are divided into North and south. 4)The completion of the Sacheonwangsa temple in 679 is understood as the conclusion of ‘rebuilding’ to “build a temple out of coloured silk” i.e. ‘Jochang’ in 670 years. The pent roof of the Geumdang was initially considered not to be in the plan, but it is judged to be before the completion of the Sacheonwangsa temple.