Traditional Korean architecture and traditional ships maintained a close relationship with carpenters and tools because wood, the material, was common. This close relationship may have been from the time of ancient architecture and ancient ships. In previous studies, researchers proved the relationship between these two sides through historical records of traditional architecture and traditional ships. This study attempts to prove the structural association using existing remains. As a result, three structural similarities between traditional architecture and traditional ships could be found. First, the types of wood used are similar, and the tools and terms used are similar. Second, the method of distinguishing horizontal and vertical materials and the structure of wood and the method of forming wood are similar. Lastly, the ship carpenters mobilized for the construction of the palace mainly worked on long and curved materials such as the eaves and the ridge of a roof, because this was the work done when the ship was built. Therefore, it can be assumed that the roof structure they created resembles that of the ship.
Ijidang(二止堂) is a private village school (seodang, 書堂) established in Okcheon, north Chungcheong province where Jungbong Jo, Heon(重峯趙憲, 1544-1592 AD) had trained for his sound mind and body(yusangcheo, 遊賞處). Jo, Heon was a notable Neo-Confucian scholar of the Kiho School and also a righteous general leading soldiers in Joseon Dynasty. According to Ijidanggi(二止堂記), Ijidang was constructed to honor Jo, Heon and to train local talents in 1647 with the support of Song, Si-yeol(宋時烈, 1607-1689 AD),a representative scholar belong to Kiho School and other local Confucian scholars. Ijidang currently consists of Main Body(本體) in the middle along with the East(Dong-lu 東樓) and the West Pavilions(Seo-lu 西樓) attached to each side. The Main Body and the Dong-lu firstly constructed were to give lectures and to rest within. Ijidang has undergone several changes in its form so far. The surrounding nearby Ijidang shows characteristics of the Confucian architecture for training(J eong-sa, 精舍) and the building itself was to be built in a scenic place apart from the secular world in which scholars stayed, cultivated their body and mind or taught disciples within. The lecture space of Ijidang is positioned next to the main hall(Dae-cheong 大廳) unlike other typical forms of a three-bay building(samganjije 三 間之制) at that period. West lu, a two-story building added afterwards in the early 18th century representing characteristics of the Gate Pavilion(Mullu, 門樓) of Neo-Confucian Academies(Seo-won, 書院) in Joseon Dynasty was typically located where the entrance and the ground floor of the main building are visible simultaneously.
The tombs at the royal level of the Western Han dynasties belong to the five kingdoms of Chu, Liang, Lu, Zhongshan and Changyi, representing the new forms and ideas of the tomb architecture. Taking Shanchuwang Tomb in BeidongShan, Xuzhou as an example, this paper analyzes the architectural structure and symbolic significance of the tomb, and tries to discuss the concept of burial reflected in it.The analysis of the structure of the main body of the tomb reveals the basic logic of the tomb imitating the palace on the ground, and the definition of the nature of the annex reflects its transcendence over the general form of the tomb.
The purpose of this research is to understand Ko Yu-seop’s perception of ‘contemporary emerging architecture’ in the West by investigating into his two early 1930s’ articles: ‘On Emerging Arts, Particularly the Cutting-edge Architecture’ (Jan. 1931) and ‘Russian Architecture’ (Dec. 1932). As a result of the investigation, it is argued that he attempted to systematically describe his contemporary architecture, from the concept of ‘modern’ to representative architectural theories, and his suggested reference list is considered meaningful since it illustrates one aspect of how modern architectural knowledge was transferred to Korea at that time. As his limitation, however, it should be pointed out that a significant part of his writing was a verbatim translation of the Japanese critic Takao Itagaki’s New Art Acquisition (1930). Nevertheless, the two articles give us a valuable understanding related to his socialist tendency, his preferred commune-type city-cum-architecture that reflects the ideology, etc. Hereafter, this understanding needs to be further discussed in both study areas of art history and architectural history in Korea.
This paper is an architectural historical study on Chimi of Hwangnyongsa Temple. In this research, the shape and cross-section of the chimi are reviewed. The results of the study are as follows. The chimi is a form in which the head part facing the maru is omitted, and the upper and lower body are separated. The upper and lower bonds are assembled into a two types of joint throughout the side of the torso, and then bound with an iron strap. Because of the absence of ridge line in the front, and the narrow curved surface which makes the side plate close to the plane, the entire cross-section is triangular, and the rear plate maintains the shape of the chimi. The naerimmaru connected to the side of the chimi has a slope, so it is clear that the chimi was used on the woojingak-jibung(hipped-roof), and the wing part and back of the chimi are erected on the side roof. The height of the yongmaru and chunyeomaru is about the same and the roofing tiles of those are in contact. The roofing tiles of chunyemaru should be cut to fit the angle of the contacting part. The maru is 30 stories high of roofing tiles as a result of the on-board survey. Based on reference on the shape and timing of the production of chimi, the height of chimi, and the maru is believed to have been built before the Unified Silla Period and used in buildings with at least seven-kan frontage. Buildings corresponding to these construction conditions can be seen as Central hall and East hall in Hwangnyongsa temple.
This study explains details on Heungbokjeon during the reconstruction of Gyeongbokgung Palace in the 19th century for the first time in 273 years. Hence, the construction of a palace with more than 7,000 Kan(間) made possible in a short stretch of time. Given the fact that its existing architecture was recycled. The antecedent of Heungbokjeon(興福殿) was the Hamiljae(咸一齋) of Changuiggung(彰義宮) which served as the residence of King Yeongjo before he was enthroned. On the other hand, the Changuigung was the outset of Inpyeongwi-gung(寅平尉 宮), which was built for the princesses. During the reign of King Hyojong the princess who got married must depart from the Inpyeongwi-gung. This study corroborated the undertaking of modification of its architecture from being asymmetrical house to symmetrical most primarily the inner part of the palace through the innovation of Changui-gung and the restoration of Hamijae to Heungbokjeon. Hence, it was confirmed that the Heungbokjeon was the only inner part of the palace that was not burned down by the 2 consecutive fires during the reign of King Gojong, to be more specific these fire happend on his 10th and 13th year of rule. Consequently, the research process of Gyeongbokgung Heungbokjeon can escalate the possibility of considering not only the reconstruction of Gyeongbokgung in the 19th century, as well as the construction of the capital city in the 17th century.
It is difficult to conduct an on-site investigation of Kaesung since it's located in North Korea. After the devastating Korean civil war we have lost a lot of authentic structures. At present, the statement of those who have seen the Kaesung during the time would be of great help in bringing out the significance of this study. According to Ma Hae-song, who was a local in Kaesung. He vividly remembered how his neighborhood looks like and he even mentioned the every single detail of his house in his essay. Moreover he also compared the traditional Han-ok in the former time from the household of other countries. There was an extraordinary interest and insight in Han-ok. This study estimated Ma hae-song's Gaesuong house based on Ma hae-song's personal and supplementary records. the contents by exchanging e-mails with his eldest son, poet Ma Jong-ki. Through the above process, it was confirmed that the writer Mahae Song's Gaeseong House was a typical wealthy merchant's house located in Donghaerang, a luxury residential area, and was engaged in commerce.