Nakseonjae in Changdeokgung Palace was established at The King Hunjong’s 13rd year (1847), the mid-19th century. It was constructed for own rests of King Hunjong and the residence of Kyungbin (king’s concubines), and is showing features of upper-class houses from several points such as rustic architectural types by getting out of authoritative aspects as king’s shelter space within the palace, block and floor distribution that separated spaces for men and women, simplicity in structures and styles, and non-colorful painting etc. This study aims at tracing on which architectural types did the upper-class houses within Hanyang (modern Seoul) at late Joseon Dynasty have and what was characteristics of Nakseonjae. The resemblance between Nakseonjae and the upper-class houses was very little differences from scale aspects, and floor plan shapes of Anchae (women’s quarters) and Sarangchae (men’s quarters) were followed basic common styles. Also, resemblance could be confirmed in the structural styles too. Characteristics of Nakseonjae are showing apparent differences from clearance compositions such as hall configuration etc. Nakseonjae was king’s dwelling place, and spaces for house’s collateral functions such as kitchen, stable, and warehouse etc together with shrine were unnecessary, and such places were substituted into servants’ quarters for assisting the Royal family. In detailed structural styles, column’s size was larger 3cm or more than the upper-class houses, and its height was higher to the degree of 30~60cm. Besides, formality as king’s shelter space was raised more in decorating aspects, and Nakseonjae was implemented by getting architectural influences from Qing Dynasty of China. This study induced features of Hanyang’s upper-class houses at the 19th century by supplementing distribution and space configurations at existing cases of Seoul and Gyeonggi area together with house diagrams having been collected by Gaokdohyung (site and floor plan) of Jangseogak Library, and confirmed resemblances and differences with Nakseonjae, that is, features of Nakseonjae. Through the result, this study judges a fact that architecture of Nakseonjae seemed to be affected from conveniences of upper-class houses within Hanseong, and also architectural styles and distribution types of Nakseonje would give influences to the upper-class houses.
The core idea of the critical regionalism could be summarized as a self-conscious synthesis between universal civilization and world culture. After World War Ⅱ, it has been applied to architecture for overcoming the problem of Industrial Capitalism and uniformity of 20th century Modern Architecture. Naturally, religious architecture cannot also be an exception in this cultural trend, thus we can also apply the critical regionalism to the Korean Catholic Church Architecture with the basic premise that the Traditional Western and Modern Style Church Architecture should be regarded as universal civilization, and the Traditional Korean Architecture and endemicity as one of world culture. In the context, this article attempts to analyze the regionality of Korean Modern Catholic Church Architecture constructed between the 19th century and 1980's, and how it has been differently transformed with the view of the critical regionalism. Its analysis will be carried out within three types; transformation of the Traditional Korean Architecture and the influence of Japanese Modern Architecture, representation of the Traditional Korean Architecture, and abstraction of the Traditional Korean Architecture with each advantages and disadvantages.
This research aims to demonstrate the sociocultural significance of architectural journals produced in the 1970s during which a fundamental reconsideration of architectural discipline has been made. To this end, we established a method of analysis adapted to the characteristics of architectural journals of that period. In this formulation, the relative autonomy of architectural journal with regard to various actors and institutions involved in its production emerged as a major criterion for the analysis of a journal. From this methodological reflection, we analyzed two French architectural journals, AMC published between 1973 and 1981 and l’Architecture d'Aujourd'hui between 1974 and 1977, which were produced both in close relation with parisian architectural schools (UPA) in the context of reestablishment of architectural education and beginning of architectural research in France after the events of May 1968. If these journals reflected and strengthened the architectural reality and especially the social network of their protagonists, it is equally important to note that they have transformed it into cultural network, and this by the mechanism proper to their preparation and their textual organization.
This is a study concerning about the definition of the concept of industrial heritage being mentioned often lately, and considering the term's origin and changing process aiming at clarifying and improving its undertone and understanding. Especially, it's a basic study to make people understand fundamentally what industrial heritage means and differences in Korea in where any innovative affair such as industrial revolution has never occurred. Looking into the origin and changing process of the industrial archaeology & industrial heritage terms, their concepts appear ambiguously defined due to their generational, phenomenal and terminological reason. but it's detectable that their subjects and timing range have been extended. Korea, China and Japan, the Asian nations also have gone through mainly phenomenal and terminological mess in accepting the terms. Korean industrial heritage can define from the definition of industrial heritage in Nyzni Tagil charter. It, however, have to redefine about period of industrialization. This study suggest the 4 steps of modern industrialization in Korea and insist that we have to conserve industrial heritages not only in colonial period but also in 1960-80 industrialization in korea.
The starting point of this study is the concerning of simple behavioral pattern that whoever enters the inner space with taking off his shoes should go out from the position where he laid his shoes. The using of Ondol (floor heating room) and Maru (lifted wood floor) had changed the architectural space from chair-sitting to floor-sitting space, and it also made the behavior of taking off the shoes at the entrance of building and stepping on the lifted floor. This simple behavior has possibility to make lots of changes to the culture of architectural design. With this noticeable point, this paper is talking about the cultural feature of Korean traditional architecture, especially about the influence of tanking off and putting on shoes. The matter of shoes has changed diverse aspects of building and layout planning. It maximized the difference between front and rear part of building and characterized the lateral extension of Korean traditional house. The ritual space also had evolved from chair-sitting to floor-sitting space according to the type of ritual behavioral pattern. The change on the single building level had influenced on the layout planning of architectural complex. For examples, the parallel layout of ChangDeok-gung palace and the long sequential process to the main pavilion of Buddhist temple are the result of the matter of shoes. And NuGak(樓閣), the double-storied pavilion, on the axis of entering sequence’s node is one of the unique planning elements that makes possible to go through the building without taking off the shoes and also makes upper level space for staying. In short, Korean traditional architecture that has the chair-sitting spatial origin of the East Asian cultural sphere has pursued new architectural issues and planning methods according to evolution to the floor-sitting culture.
This study aims to classify the architectural formation of the Stylobate of and Staircase types of Post-Lintel Construction in Backje style and Silla style and also to figure out their specific elements by periods and transformation characteristics. The scope of this study was restricted to architectural remains between the Three Kingdom period and the Goryeo period. To progress the investigation, the study classified remains in a similar type by period and type, and then and analyzed its character based on formation method and specific factors of subsidiary materials. As a result, its type can be classified as Backje type(Ⅰ), Silla type(Ⅱ) and Mixed type(Ⅲ). Regionally, it is found that Woongjin, Sabi and surroundings in the capital of Backje, Gyeongju and main towns in the capital of Silla, and Gaeseong and main towns in the capital of Goryeo. In particular, type III has the characteristics of type I and II simultaneously, which has one or two layers Jangdaeseok stone between the foundation stone of stylobate and plate stone, and tends to be decorative when Taengjuseok stone is installed. For types of staircase, it could be classified as 6~7C Backje type(Ⅰ), 7~9C Silla type(Ⅱ) and 9C Mixed type(Ⅲ) according to the formation method of Somaetdol (banister of stone stair). And from the 9th century on, decorated Somaetdol stone type(IV) of 1/4 circle shape began to appear. The common feature of stylobate of post-lintel and staircase is that it became simplified, abbreviated and decorative. It seems to be intended to secure simplicity of construction or structural stability.
Balhae(698~926) was the ancient state which opened the Nambuk-guk period with the Unified Silla. But Balhae architecture began to included in the history of Korean architecture only about 15 years ago, such as the books written by Yun Jang-seop or Ju Nam-cheol. I discussed four issues related to Balhae architecture in this paper. First, I criticized the excavation report of 24 stones remains at Jiangdong in Duhua city, and I asserted the ondol site belonged to different period. Second, I also interpreted that the building found on the tombs no.13 and no.14, in the Longhai burial area in Helong city must be a wooden stupa. Third, Balhae played some important roles in the history of ondol. It developed Koguryeo ondol in terms of structure, gave an opportunity to the ruling class to adopt ondol for the first time, and passed the heating system down to the Jurchen, the ancestor of the modern Manchurian. Fourth, the Russian-Korean joint research team excavated seven building sites in Koksharovka 1 fortress from Russian territory these four years, and it is reasonable to assume the fortress was the center of Anbyeon-bu, one of 15 local government districts in Balhae. I guess this buildings were the royal shrine built by resisters after the fall of Balhae, and the vessel stands found there must be used for ancestral memorial ceremony inside them.
The goal of this paper is to analyze the Freedom Center Apacle in Seoul designed by Kin Soo Geun who was a leading architect in Korean Modern architecture. Freedom Center was built in 1963, that was the largest monumental building to support military regime during cold war period in Korea. This paper deals with historical background of construction of Freedom Center and its characteristics compared to similar monumental buildings, especially Corbusier's Chandigar and Kenzo Tange's Hiroshima Peace Center. The Monumentality in Freedom Center came from the reference to these two buildings and its site plan. This paper tried to show how similar the layout of buildings between the Freedom Center and Peace Center. The origin of the sublime aura in Tange's linear layout of Peace Center is from Japanese Famous Shrine(Jinku). Kim translated it to serve the ideological purpose to protect from socialist regime in the name of freedom. Its over-scaled roof and weak contents showed Freedom center was a kind of theaterical setting belong to formalist building. But in spite of its symbolic and representational gesture its also had a architectonic physical quality to make it a monument. The change and duration in time testified the autonomous power of architecture in Freedom Center. Freedom Center was also important for using the exposed concrete and its superior finish. It was influenced not from western way of Benton Brut which was usually called New Brutalism but Japanese way of treating expose concrete. In spite of its limits Freedom center achieved new trend and sensibility in Korean Modern Architecture.
The purpose of this study is to understand the architectural space of Donggung(東宮), the Prince's Palace, and Dongjo(東朝), the King's Mother and Queen's living space, in the early Joseon Dynasty. The Royal palace can be divided into three parts, political space for king, living space for king and his family and government office. So first, we should to understand the characteristics of each space in the Royal Palace. Up to now we have looked at the architectural space of Donggung(東宮) and Dongjo(東 朝) in Gyeongbokgung(景福宮), one of the Royal Palace, the result of this study is as followings. Donggung which was living space for Prince consisted of Jaseondang(資善堂), Seunwhadang(承華堂) and Kyejodang(繼照堂) in the era of King Sejong Kyejodang was demolished and Seunwhadang was destroyed by fire in King Jungjong era and was not rebuilded. This buildings The buildings consisted of Jeondang, Whudang, main gate, hapmun(閤門) and corridor or fence Donggung and Dongjo was separated wall Dong consisted of many buildings for Queen dowager, Queen and many royal concubines The arrangement of Donggung and Dongjo was assumed like as the Fig2.
The objective of this study is to find out the recent trends of hanok design based on 58 hanoks appeared in architecture magazines in the last 10 years. The cases are analyzed in terms of location, size, building form, spatial organization, material, roof form, and the ceiling form of living room. The consequences of this study is as follows; Most of the recent hanoks are built in rural area (91.4%), which shows the hanok is not accepted as an urban house type. Hanoks tend to be built in 2 stories whose 2nd floor is smaller than the 1st floor. (34.5%) The preferred size is total floor area of 99.2 ~ 165.2㎡ (62.0%), 3 rooms (46.6%) with a traditional ondol room (60.3%). The buildings with ㄱ-shape (43.1%) and linear-shape (27.6%) are preferred, and the compact plan type similar with apartment house appears (13.8%). In the roof design that greatly influences the appearance of building, the traditional design factors such as half-hipped roof (55.2%), double eaves (27.6%), and eaves curve tend to be sustained. In terms of spatial organization, most of recent hanoks have double-layed plan (74.2%). The living room mostly has separately defined space. (82.8%) The indoor and outdoor tend to be connected by a narrow wooden veranda (39.7%), while some cases don't have any wooden floor space (48.3%). The entrance is adopted as an important spatial element in front part of building (75.9%), and it influences the appearance of building. The living room, the counterpart of the wooden floor hall in traditional hanok, and kitchen tend to be interiorized. In terms of material, the cement roof tile and red clay brick are preferred. Consequently, the walls of recent hanoks have the image of brick structure rather than the wooden frame structure of traditonal hanok.