This paper deals with a fundamental study for 'Tonhobeondo統戶番圖-making' of Hanseongbu(modern Seoul) before the Japanese colonial period. 'Tonhobeondo統戶番圖 -making' will be accomplished through analysis on Kwangmu-census光武戶籍as a map of address-system in the Joseon period. It is possible to consider the urban changes of Hanseongbu(modern Seoul) because of 'Tonhobeondo統戶番圖' reflects a urban situation from the 1897 to 1906. At present, an address-system of Korea was made by the cadastral survey in the 1914. By the way, new address-system was a completely different from traditional address-system of Joseon period. Consequently, different two address-system caused a lot of difficulties the study on the urban changes. For such a reason 'Tonhobeondo統戶 番圖-making' is very important. If 'Tonhobeondo統戶番圖-making' would be accomplished, it will be used by a field of urban, architectural and historical science study besides.
The Sungnyemun roofing tiles were twice disassembled for maintenance work, in 1963 and 1997, and modern tiles were applied in 1997. However, besides differing in visual appearance, the modern tiles had distinctly different physical properties. A study has been carried out on 22 different tiles, including original Sungnyemun tiles, modern tiles applied during maintenance, traditional tiles made by tile-makers, and others, to examine their physical properties, such as bending strength, frost resistance, absorption, whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, chromaticity, differential thermal analysis, and other characteristics. Since the method of making modern tiles involves compressing clay in a vacuum, modern tiles showed relatively greater bending strength and specific gravity, while Sungnyemun tiles and those made by tile-makers, in comparison, demonstrated less bending strength and specific gravity owing to their production method of 'treading,' in which clay is mixed by having someone tread upon it repeatedly. Over time, the absorption rate of the original tile used for Sungyemun gradually decreased from 21% to 14.7%; traditional tiles from tile-makers showed absorption rates of 17%, while the absorption rate of modern tiles was just 1%, which is significantly low. As for frost resistance, Sungnyemun tiles and traditional tiles from tile-makers showed cracking and exfoliation after being subjected to testing 4 or 5 times, while slight cracking was seen on the surface for modern tiles after 1ngy, or 3 times. In other words, no significant difference from influence by frost was found. According to the results of differential thermal analysis, the plastic temperature was shown to have been no less than 1, on℃ for all types of tile, and cristobalite was measuredthrough XRD analysis from a Sungnyemun female tile applied during maintenance in 1963, which appeared to have been plasticized at between 1,200℃~1,300℃. Based on these research results on the physical properties of tiles from the Sungnyemun roof, a fundamental production method for tiles to be applied in the restoration of Sungnyemun has been identified.
As Overturned-bowl Stupa of India, the origin of Stupa, is accepted by neighboring countries, pure form and local characteristics combined to bring change in unique style for each country. Such change is established as new style through combination with contemporary tradition in China. In this thesis, pattern of Stupa shown in Longmen Grottoes’ Relief-Stupa relieves. Since study on how Indian Stupa was introduced into China has been partially undertaken, this study focuses on the pattern of Stupas from that perspective. 40 Stupas were explored during field work with naked eyes, among about 50 stupas reported on the research data by Longmen Grottoes Institute. Relief-Stupa relieves of Longmen Grottoes are as important as Yungang Grottoes. While Yungang Grottoes were built during a period when Gandhara style and Occidental expression were adopted and integrated with Chinese culture and Buddhism, building of Longmen Grottoes can be called a starting point of ‘Chinese’ style of Buddhist culture and Stupa, fully integrated with Chinese culture.
This study aims to investigate the changing aspects about research methodology of stone pagoda from the period of Japanese colonial to now. There were the differences in purpose, method and analysis of the research according to each period. In Japanese colonial period, the purpose of research was to make lists of almost stone pagodas in Korea. Following this, Japanese researchers conducted detailed research for academic purpose. They took measurements of stone pagodas and made drawings. After liberation the research was focused on the relics contained in pagodas. They proceeded to investigate the inner relics in order to attract the attention of the people. In the late 1900's, the repair works of cultural heritages were increased. Many reports of the repair works were released and sent to administration offices. The reports contained the change aspects of situation between before work and after with drawings or simple investigation documents. In the 1990's, the restoration works for important stone pagodas were started by the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. Since then, researches from various way - architectural and conservational researches about historical interpretation, shape, structure, proportion, technique, etc. - progressed for careful restoration and accurate study. In Recent years, various professional organizations(in the field of structure, physics, chemistry, biology, lithology, etc.) started to join the researches. Researches conducted studies directly with the stone pagodas, as well as conducting indirect studies with the stone pagodas, such as the structural stability of stone pagodas, the characteristics of rock, and conservation chemicals. Today the research project 'The preservation project of stone cultural property' is being conducted by the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. The purpose of this project is to gain more detailed and accurate investigation documents to be provided for the people. In conclusion, researches from various fields must be included in the research. Furthermore, a synthetic study should be done through comparing similar characteristics or different characteristics among many research results.
Across the culture of Western Europe, dichotomy based on the visual sense has evolved. They believed eyes and ears requiring a distance related in recognition, are more developed than any other human senses in human body. Dominant position, as a condition to using a perspective, the eye has been just concentrated in the development of optical sight. But developed a variety of modern media, highlighting the importance of the other perception, it makes dichotomy to the expansion of perception over the single function of visuality. Recently, Guille Deleuze and Merleau-Ponty try to recover the sense of tactility segregated in skin from body keeping eyes for distance. By the result, the activity can be happened by being connected to the body rather than to eye in the space between the subject and object. From the phase of recognition where the human body tries to identify the object in the space considering a time, it will be changed for the subject to the phase of structure vice versa. Visual tactility is to eliminate the distance between subject and object. If the visual tactility is to erase the distance different from the visual in dichotomy, it will be occurred to having a tension and makes new relationship to work trying to move the subjective point of view in object. Like this evidence in analysis of architecture, it can be easy to find the Korean architecture rather than western architecture in terms of emphasizing the time and space. The fact, architecture of Lee Dynasty had been preserved and consisted basic form and style over the centuries makes us assume that visual tactility was considered as well as the visual sense. This study will be intensive in terms of visual and tactile inherent in the subject and how it is being connected to the movement in the space and time.
It is a true fact that the ancient Buddhist temples of Korea were great, important historical influence revealing the transition and developing stages of all the BUddhist temples in Eastern Asia including China and Japan. Before Mahayana arose within India, the monastery and pagoda were united during the conflict and development of the original Buddhism and pagoda faith. With the arising of Mahayana and the introduction of Buddhist statues, the Buddhist temple and pagoda were in conflict and resulted in separation. With the creation and development of the Mahayana Bodhisattva concept, Hinayana and Mahayana started to show doctrine differences and expressed each others' characteristics relevant to the structure of the temple. As a result, the Buddhist Temple having 1 pagoda spread in China together with Hinayana and Mahayana. The Buddhist temple of Hinayana had its temple and pagoda separated and the Buddhist temple that has a pagoda in front was divided into a form of 1 pagoda and 1 main temple. The temple and pagoda for Mahayana in the form of 1 pagoda and 2 temple, where the main statue of the Buddha may be worshipped from both the left and right hand sides, were separated in the form of 1 pagoda and 3 temples to have its original form again. Mahayana was first introduced into Goguryeo through the routes in the northern region and developed from having 1 pagoda and 2 temples, to having 1 pagoda and 3 temples. China was influenced by the southern regions, which is why Abhidharma was introduced into Baekje. Later on, the importance of Bodhisattva increased and the transition speed of the Buddhist temple having 1 pagoda and 3 temples accelerated, as Buddhism became more popular and as Mahayana flourished. The statue of the Buddha on both sides of the pagoda shall gradually move next to the central temple , and the temple shall form large crowds to not only form a tacit boundary with the pagoda but the expansion of Bodhisattva shall also have a wall or a corridor constructed in between the central, left and right hand side temples to form separate areas, and shall have a pagoda built in front of the temples that worship from both sides. In conclusion, independence shall exist among each Bodhisattva within the Buddhist temple, and the status of the pagoda shall fall and appear as the pagoda on both sides in front of the main Buddha statue.
This thesis is a study on the oldest feng-shui book 『Janggyeong(葬經)』. Specially, it is a focus on the feng-shui orientation method so called Sasepalryongbub(四勢八龍法) in that book. This method is to identify fortune and misfortune with the directions to be measured by a feng-shui compass. Sa(四) of Sase(四勢) is the four pieces of direction of dividing 12 parts for 360 degree circle. To divide for 12 parts is related with 12-Jiji(地支). Sa mean In(寅), Sin(申), Sa(巳), and Hae(亥). Se of Sase means a large stem of mountain. Generally, Sase are the big mountain stems of the four directions as In, Sin, Sa, and Hae. Pal(八) of Palryong(八龍) mean the 8 parts of equal division for 360 degree. It is related with Palgoe(八卦) that divide for 8 parts equally. Palgoe are Jin(震), Li(離), Gam(坎), Tae(兌), Geon(乾), Gon(坤), Gan(艮), and Son(巽). Ryong(龍) of Palryong(八龍) is a stem of mountain that is measured with 8 parts of equal division feng-shui compass. Sasepalryongbub make a connection between Sase and Palryong. When they are connected, it is a good fortune like as In(寅) and Li(離), Sin(申) and Gam(坎) or Gon(坤) or Gan(艮), Sa(巳) and Tae(兌) or Geon(乾), Hae(亥) and Jin(辰) or Son(巽). It is based on two theories. The one is 12-Unseongron(運星論), the other is one of Ohaengron(五行論) as Samhap-Ohaeng(三合五行). 12-Unseongron begins from dividing all human life affairs with 12 steps. Saeng(生), Wang(旺), Myo(墓) are the very important things among 12 steps. Saeng means starting, Wang means flourishing, Myo means keeping. Samhap-Ohaeng is made with Jiji of Saeng, Wang and Myo steps about 12-Unseongron. Saeng is the most important thing among of Saeng, Wang and Myo in Sasepalryongbub which means birth. Saeng of Jiji direction can help Palgoe direction as a counterpart. Like this, the good relation of Sase and Palryong is that Jiji direction can help Palgoe direction. For example, there are In(寅) of Jiji and Li(離) of Palgoe, can be explained as these kinds of the good relations. In view of Samhap-Ohaeng, In of Jiji is regared as Saeng of fire(火). This fire– Saeng- In as Jiji can help fire- Li as Palgoe. It can be said as a good condition that Sase and Palryong be connected like this case. This is the main content of Sasepalryongbub as being treated in this study.