The purpose of this paper is the study on the architectural characteristics revived from the roman architecture, focused on the early renaissance architecture building. The results of study are as follow:
1. The composition system of Domus which is formed of urban house in the Roman period is presented by spatial arrangement of palace architecture centering around atrium in the Renaissance period. Thus plan type of Domus is used by atrium form which is composed of peristyle from the palace and villa in the Renaissance period.
2. The circular temple in the Roman period is composed of element such as podium, stair, peristyle centering around the basic circular plan. Bramante planed to revive above elements for the Tempietto to concept from the circular temple in the Roman period.
3. The triumphal arch in the Roman period is strong monument to the independent building in the city, but thus arch is used of church facade as the important example which is composed with building elevation in the Renaissance period.
4. The composition system and element of Roman temple which is planned to rectangular plan is composed of high podium, stair, portico, prostyle and pediment. The facade plan of church is used by the partial elements and total elements perfectly from the temple in the Roman period.
5. The linearly successive and repetitive composition which is composition system and element of aqueduct arches of same dimension shows to the palace facade, arcade for gallery space and side elevation plan of S.Francesco church.
6. Such as background of Colloseum, Rucellai palace can be called good example which is created by the new architectural form to the creative starting point from the classical architecture from.
This study was to analyze the philological character of Qingwujing(靑烏經). Qingwujing is the oldest and representative documents of FengShui, especially famous for FengShui XingQi(形氣) theories. In spite of its fame, a systematic research for Qingwujing was not yet fulfilled up to now in Korea. It is the main reason why have to research the philological character of Qingwujing. The results from this research were described as following. Qingwuzi(靑烏子), as known of Qingwujing's writer is very famous already in Han(漢) dynasty for his accurate FengShui methods. His FengShui theories getting more powerful from WeiChen(魏晉) to Tang(唐) dynasty. In Tang(唐) dynasty his FengShui theoies widely disseminated and hold a great position in Chinese FengShui. Cause of cultural interchange between Korea and China, Qingwuzi had a big amount of influence on Korean FengShui. Qingwujing(靑烏經) was basically formed in Han(漢) dynasty and obtained a great fame from WeiChen(魏晉) to Tang(唐) dynasty. In Tang(唐) dynasty Qingwujing was abolished by government rulers, but it recovered and retouched by some scholars from Tang(唐) and Song(宋) dynasty. In the process, the block book of Qingwujing were changed for four or five kinds. Qingwujing's block books of Ming(明) dynasty are Yimenguangdu(夷門廣牘), Jindaimishu(津逮秘書), Xiaoshisanjing(小十三經), Jujiabibei(居家必備), and Shuofu(說郛). It's block books of Qing(淸) dynasty are Gujintushujicheng(古今圖書集成), Sikuquanshu(四庫全書), Xuejintaoyuan(學津討原), and Ershierziquanji(二十二子全集). It's block book of Choson(朝鮮) dynasty is KyujangKak(奎章閣). Among them distinctive characters been founded, but the basic contents and theories are almost same. In Korea, Qingwuzi's FengShui theories were confirmed in Silla(新羅) dynasty, and it recoreded in Soongboksa inscription written by Choi-CheeWon. Qingwu(靑烏) or Qingwuzi were known for a great FengShui master or a FengShui standing theories in Koryeo(高麗) and Choson dynasty among royal families and the aristocratic classes. And Qingwujing was a representative FengShui theory book in wh0.1ole period of Choson dynasty. Now for understanding traditional FengShui theories, we have to understand the main FengShui theories in Choson dynasty at first. For understanding Choson FengShui, the study on philological character of Qingwujing is the basic works. If those works fulfilled successfully, we can understand FengShui theories and FengShu itself more correctly.
This study focused on changes in form and spatial uses of Urban Hanok in Bukchon, Seoul. There are 10 representative cases which have been renovated through the policy of ‘Preservation & Regeneration of Bukchon' by Seoul metropolitan government and other experts. Changes in form and spatial uses of Urban Hanok in Buckon are as follows. First, changes of scale. Trough removing extension parts, facade of renovated Hanoks are ‘transformed’ into recovering their identity. Using basements or lofts, intensive application of spaces is transformation which promotes the vitality of Hanoks. Second, changes of space organization. As Hanok changes its function from residence to commercial or cultural use, it also changes space character or reorganizes space organization. It is important that deciding function of Hanok has to adjust its scale and organization. Third, changes of construction performance. Through introducing new material and constructing method, performance of wall has been changed respecting its wooden structure and interior-exterior figure. However, technical studies must back it up not to destroy its value of eco-friendly architecture. Fourth, changes of facility systems, like floor heating system. They changes floor level of Hanok equally, and then sections of Hanok have became simple. Furthermore, inserting new facility space, such as boiler room, stand-up kitchen, bathroom and toilet, organization of space also changed. It is necessary that wise alternative proposal through the method of transformation or mutation must be presented. These four changes can be classification into method of ‘transformation’ and ‘mutation’. Changes of scale are method of transformation and changes of space organization are method of mutation. Also, while changes of construction performance are mutation, changes of facility systems are transformation. Recently, as price of lots have been increased, a lot of Hanoks have been commercialized, The commercial energy threat ‘the identity of Bukchon as residential area’. From now on, to operate ‘identity’ and ‘vitality’ complementary, it is necessary to make up for the preservation policy of Hanok and consolidate renovating standards of Hanok which correspond to characterof particular region and building usage.
This research was to analyze the direction ideas of residential Feng Shui. In ancient China residential places were been established by Xiangzhai(相宅) and Buzhai(卜宅) usages. And ancient Chinese always considered geographical features of mountains and waters for setting up their living places. Geographical features were also considered importantly in representative residential Feng Shui books, Zhaijing(宅經) and Yangzhaisanyao(陽宅三要). In Zhaijing, 24 direction ideas are co-related with Fagui(八卦) and GanZhi(干支) theories, and they are most important residential Feng Shui direction theories. The basic thoughts of 24 direction ideas of Zhaijing were already formed in Qin(秦) dynasty and modified in early Han(漢) dynasty. In Zhaijing, residential places were splited into Yangzhai(陽宅) and Yinzhai(陰宅) according to YinYang's Qi directions. Those theories were actually formed from meticulous observations on changing processes of YinYangWuXing(陰陽五行)'s Qi(氣). Constantly changed Qi of YinYangWuXing were studied by old chinese people from the observations on the sun, the moon, the five stars, the Great Bear, and ErShiBaXiu(二十八宿). The origin of Zhaijing's direction ideas is the direction system of ShiPan(式盤) in Qin and Han dynasty. On ShiPan TianGan(天干)․Dizi(地支)․Fagui․TianDiRenGui(天地人鬼) were arranged very systematically into four and 24 directions. DongxiSizhai(東西四宅) theories of Yangzhaisanyao had edited more lately than Zhaijing(宅經), and formed according to Fagui(八卦)‘s YinYang(陰陽) principles. But the basic ideas is same with Zhaijing's. It proves that residential Feng Shui theories were constantly improved and modified. And both residential Feng Shui direction ideas of Zhaijing and Yangzhaisanyao are the general ideas in old china. The point of that ideas is Sky's four or 24 directions are correspondence with the earth's. It came from the traditional thoughts that Heaven, Earth, and mankind are co-related and influenced each other according to Qi's changing processes. Gather up above mentioned, the direction ideas of residential Feng Shui is a systematic thoughts of old chinese for harmonizing Tian-Di-Ren-Gui, and is their specific methods for harmonizing the nature's Qi, mankind and spirits.
This study set out to compare and analyze the influences Kabbalah, which was Louis I. Kahn's faith as a Jew, on his architecture based on Freud's psychoanalysis that had many exchanges with modernism and contemporary architecture and the analytical psychology of Jung that affected Kahn in examining his architecture and theories. The specific goals of the study were to shed light to Kahn's presence in contemporary architecture anew and establish the methodology of using psychoanalysis in building new theories of architectural planning. When the theories of psychoanalysis were introduced for comparison and analysis purposes, Kahn tried to differentiate his buildings by placing a function or symbolic central space at the heart of a building even though he did adopt a characteristic of modernism architecture, which was placing a core at the centre of plan, for a while. Such a tendency of his was based on Jung's opinions rather than Freud's and affected by Ecole des Beaux-Art. The analysis results also indicate that he conceived "Served Space & Servant Space," "architecture of connection" and "silence and light" that made up the essence of his architectural theory from the relationships between Ayin-Sof, Kabbalah's absolute god, and Sefiroth. It's also very likely that his often use of triangles and circles in his architecture was affected by the Tree of Sefiroth diagram of Kabbalah. His tendency is well reflected in Salk Institute and Philips Exeter Academy Library, where he placed a laboratory or courtyard at the center where a core was supposed to be, created a corridor or courtyard space between those central spaces and the core, and connected them one another with circulation. Thus he succeeded in embodying the concept of Tree of Sefiroth with which to perceive the being of Ayin-Sof into an architectural space, which is well proven with Mikveh Israel Synagogue where he directly applied the Tree of Sefiroth diagram. The synagogue also contained a hollow column that served as an important concept in his late architecture. The hollow column was also the result of him applying the concept of Sefiroth to the place where Ayin-Sof was reduced in Kabbalah.