Bong-amsa Temple is a special temple in the custody of Jogye sect, a branch of Buddhism in Korea. Due to limited public access to this temple, its Geungnakjeon(paradise shrine) has been little known to outside. But it is known that the Geungnakjeon has been not yet explored from academic standpoints in terms of its historical establishment as well as applications, and it would be two-storied wooden pagoda or the like. In order to examine its historical establishment, this study investigated historical records related to Bong-amsa Temple and its intrinsic architectural style. As a result, it was estimated that the building was established around the transitional period ranging from the late Koryo dynasty to the early Joseon dynasty. And it was found that the Geungnakjeon is not the two-storied wooden pagoda, but the unique building including an incidental component called Chayanggan(遮陽間; a sort of stepped penthouse) in Korea. In order to examine its possible applications, this study compared this building with other Buddhist funeral articles in forms similar thereto, such as Buddhist pagoda(僧塔), sarira container(舍利器) and Gamnodo(甘露圖) which depicts Byeoknyeon Daeban(碧蓮臺畔; a palanquin carrying malignant spirit). Then, this study estimated its possible applications on the basis of relevant historical literatures. As a result, it was found that this building was used as Wondang(願堂; a sort of Buddhist prayer house) to wish royal family's going to Nirvana after death, and it was not Confucian-style architecture popularized in the era of Joseon dynasty, but Buddhist-style architecture built widely from the era of Koryo dynasty to the early Joseon dynasty.
Choryang-weagwan which was the largest international trading place between Joseon Dynasty and Tokugawa Shogunate had been maintained from 1678 through 1872 in Busan. Particularly, they had 21 times repairing constructions for 200 years since its establishment. It is noticeable that Joseon Dynasty permitted Tokukawa Shogunate to construct main pavilions and guesthouses as his style due to the good-neighbor policy between two countries, and Tokukawa Shogunate struggled to achieve his own culture in that place under the supervision of Joseon Dynasty For satisfying his needs, the architectural craftsmen of Tokukawa Shogunate were mobilized by the chief of construction company which was called kumi-gasira in the most of cases. When they came to Busan for the construction, they brought their own architectural tools. On the one hand, the carpenters and workers of Joseon Dynasty were organized by the traditional construction superintendents which were called Gamdong-gwan and they had to carry out their responsibilities with Japanese technicians at the same workplace. Judging from this fact, the construction site of Weagwan was the good place for exchanging the architectural technology between two countries. This study especially focuses on Tokukawa Shogunate craftsmen who made the repairs of Dongwan-samdaechung in 1727 such as carpenters(Dai-ku), sawyers(ko-biki), and surveyors(Tsue-tsuki) and their tools such as Hatsuri(=Masakari) and Yo-ki(=Oh-no). The constructions in this period, there were not only the repairs of 3 major pavilions including the trading center, but also one of the most active repairing constructions comparing with other period, therefor these were important constructions to shows us repairing construction of Choryang-weagwan of those days.
The Fagus Factory at Alfeld on the Leine in Germany, which was built in 1911 and 1914, is a well-known and very important object in the history of modern architecture. Alan Colquhoun mentioned that it is "prophetic of the 'objective' (sachlich) Modern Movement of the 1920s". Vittrio M. Lampugnani evaluated it as "a Pioneer building of the architectural Realism". Most of historian of architecture explain that these achievements were accomplished mainly by the master architect Walter Gropius and sometimes by his co-worker Adolf Meyer. Through investigating the background in the planning stage and the process of design it is to try to find out what is truly happened during the project time. Furthermore, historical meanings of the building in the modern architecture is reinterpreted in the following aspects; who or which elements have influence on the Fagus Factory? and what kind of problems can be caused by the digested architectural history?
Through analysing on construction cases of stupa built in A.D. 7,8th, I have researched about these : constructive methods of inner soil of stupa, spatial compositions, characteristics of structures, arrangements of inner soil and etc. And cases analysed are six ; Mireuksajiseoktap(stone pagoda of Mireuksa Temple site), Gameunsajisamcheumgseoktap(three storied stone pagoda of Gameunsa Temple site), Goseonsajisamcheungseoktap(three storied stone pagoda of Goseonsa Temple site), Wolseong nawolliocheungseoktap(five storied stone pagoda in Nawonri, Wolseong), Guksagokseoktap(three storied stone pagoda in Guksa valley), Giamgokseoktap(three storied stone pagoda in Giam valley). Additionally we researched about inner soil of Sacheonwangsaji tapji(basement of stone stupa site in Sacheonwang Temple site) to speculate on composition of Synthetically, the foundation could be divided as core space and outer space. ; the former as structural function and the latter as ornamental function. And the core area could be divided again as center column space and buffer space. The relationship between core spaces and its formation are as belows; First, according to the area of foundation and scale of stone pagoda, formations of core are differed. As the scale of stone pagoda goes bigger, and the area of foundation goes larger, the structure of stone pagoda comprised by center column type and layered-core which endure upper load independently. On the contrary, as the scale of stone pagoda goes smaller, and the area of foundation goes lesser, the structure of stone pagoda tend to use only center column to endure upper part. Second, spatial composition of core area is comprised as two spaces, one which endure upper load and buffer space which absorb side pressure and upper pressure. The buffer space tend to be used in case of those structures which could not endure side pressure or have lots of joint. In some cases, it was located below the cover stone of foundation and gained upper load. And in case that have not gained pressure from side stone, the buffer space are comprised by smalle stone or roof tile to get structural supplement.