The purpose of this study is the analysis of 'perpendicular crossing Dori' with a structural character of Ddeulzip in Andong cultural area. There are many structural methods to solve the problems of Ddeuljip which is connected space in the rectangular type. There are 'Slope Base', 'Woosangak' roof, 'Seosangak' roof, and '4 beam roof framing' Moreover, they have been used 'perpendicular crossing Dori'. Its characters are as follows ; 1. The 'perpendicular crossing Dori' structure is occurred in different depth of width and length space of 'ㄱ' typed plan. At that time the beam of width is crossed in the middle of the beam of length without the order under them. 2. The 'perpendicular crossing Dori' structure is the method of free depth of width in regular distance of column which is different from general usage of balcony order. 3. The 'perpendicular crossing Dori' structure is founded north-western area of Andong Cultural Area(Bonghwa, Andong, Youngju, and Yeacheun). The best old sample was in Andong(16C) and the next is Yeacheun(17C) and the last is Bonghwa(18C). 4. The frequency in use of roof type of 'perpendicular crossing Dori' structure is 64% of 'Seosangak' and 36% of 'Woosangak'. The sample of 'Woosangak' house of 'perpendicular crossing Dori' structure is concentrated in Bonghwa. 5. The best merit of the 'perpendicular crossing Dori' structure is usage of double swing window in front of Anbang, It is the spacial success which overcomes the structural limits. And it is the structural rationality.
There is an opinion that Korean Buddhist Temples located in mountains(山地寺刹) should be built since the Secret Buddhism was introduced and the Zen Buddhism was widely distributed over But, Korean Buddhist temples were already in the mountains before the introduction of Zen Bluddhism. Moreover, Zen Buddhist temples were actually not located at mountainous region, but located at plain area in mountains. Thus it is necessary to modify the idea of that the location of temples were only under the influence of Secret Buddhism. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relation between the location of the Korean Buddhist Temples and transportation. The results of this study are as follows; Based on the legends originated from the buddhist temples, the traditional maps, and the political situations, it has been disclosed that the locations of Korean Buddhist Temples have the relations with the traffic roads. Therefore politically, militarily, and socially, the Korean Buddhist Temples have played important roles since the Three Kingdoms. The Buddhist temples need lodging facilities called Won-Woo for the ordinary people, due to change of the characteristics of the Buddhism in Korea from politically to socially. But the lodging facilities stood apart from main region for the ascetic exercise of the Buddhist priests.
This study aims to analyze the construction of Kyungsang KAMYOUNG in the late Chosun dynasty by restoring its constructive system and relating it with the office organization. followings are the summary of this study. 1. Government office of Daegu consists of inn(KAEGSA), Kyungsang KAMYOUNG, and Daegu city hall(BUA), and JINYOUNG. 2. The layout of virtual placement is shown in the <Figure-11> in the text. Even though it had been newly constructed due to three times of fire, the fundamental scheme of space is found out not to have been changed since mid-eighteen century at the latest. 3. Followings are the result of analyzing the space of KAMYOUNG, after dividing its space into entry area, main business area and police military business area in the aspect of business. First, entry area consists of 2 door system with external door(UOISAMMUN) and internal door(NAESAMMUN). Second, main business area consists of facilities for inspector, public officials, and low grade employee respectively This space is divided into SUNHWADANG area and JINGCHONGKAK area, and the former consists of active business facilities, and the latter consists of passive business facilities focusing on the rest facilities. Third, business support area consists of facilities for low grade employee and minor assistant respectively, which are placed to the left and right of POJONGMUN and KWANPUNGRU. Fourth, police military business space is in middle(JUNGYOUNG) and forms separate areas to the east of SUNHWADANG. Accordingly, It is certain that the space of Kyungsang KAMYOUNG had been placed in accordance with the nature of business per position.
In this research, we analyzed the activities of Japanese architectural offices in Korea during the Japanese occupation era, classifying them into two groups: first, Japanese architectural offices that had their bases in Korea, and second, Japanese architectural offices that had their bases in Japan. There were totally 98 Japanese architectural offices that had their bases in Korea during the Japanese occupation period. The number of those offices had increased rapidly since 1920s. Nakamura(the design of bank buildings), Tamada(the design of theaters), Otsumi(the design of Japanese style residential houses) can be regarded as the most remarkable Japanese architectural offices among them. We found that these offices already specialized in certain architectural planning fields, such as bank buildings, theaters and residential houses. It was also found that, during the Pacific War period, even privately-managed architectural offices were mobilized for the war by Japanese government, through designing munitions factories, etc. On the one hand, since some large Japanese corporations entered into Korea, many Japanese architectural offices, that had their bases in Japan, got into working in Korea and designed a number of buildings, with the exception of the architectural office of Vories, who was a Christian architect. Even though the place that the activities of these Japanese architectural offices were carried out was Korea, any factors of Korean architectural style couldn't be found In their works. This means that they just transplanted the Japanese modern architectural style in Korea.
The region of Southeast Asia had already experienced rapid urbanization and cultural change before the East Asia region did. None the less, nowadays shophouses and rowhouses still form the major portion of streets in Chinese town in Southeast Asia countries. The purpose of this study is to examine the adaptation process of shophouse and rowhouse in the Southeast Asia region and the architectural characteristics between the middle of 18th and the early of 20th, which Chinese people of the region inherit and develop, for more thorough understanding of cultural adaptability and regionalism of Chinese architecture in Southeast Asia. The common fact found in the Southeast Asia region is that Chinese people in countries of this region gradually started to live densely as a group in a certain zone in city area since they got to play important roles in commerce, trade and service works related with cities, due to European countries' advance into Southeast Asia and their construction of colonial cities in the region. Chinese people in the region utilized residential rowhouse and special shophouse, which is a kind of shop adapted from rowhouses' sitting room or storage, for their commercial and industrial activities in urban areas, which had problems of limited space. They also realized high densities through vertical expansion of space in order to adjust to changing urban structure under execution of urban planning in cities of colonial area and rapid urbanization. Even though residence of Chinese in Southeast Asia was influenced by new political, social, economic and cultural rules of European colonies in Southeast Asia, it has continuously succeeded to the cultural tradition of China, their home country, in terms of planning principle which puts air well in the middle and hierarchial spacial construction method. Appearance of the open connected verandah, designed by Stamford Raffles, the founder of Singapore, can be regarded as one of the architectural characters. Hence, Chinese residence in cities of Southeast Asia can be understood as a new regional architectural culture in the context of European countries' urban planning and urbanization of colonial areas, Immigrants from southern China and their role, their adjustment to urban areas by utilizing mixed type houses of residence and business, cultural tradition of Chinese home country.
This paper is a study of the Beaux-Arts discipline of architecture, as it was established during the late nineteenth century in America. It focuses on trio particular modes of vision and representation that were at the heart of the discipline. The paper argues that Beaux Arts vision was centered on what may be called 'planar vision'; a mode of seeing through which the multiple aspects of the architectural design imbedded in the plan were read and re-interpreted. Similarly Beaux-Arts training in drawing required its student to draw within the multiple layers of historical traces; the new design being in effect a new layer placed on often unseen traces of monumental precedent. The theoretical basis of this practice was not based on history but on the concept of composition. Composition, in the French tradition was regarded more a matter of practice than theory. The Anglo-American discourse on composition, on the other hand, formed a body of theoretical literature based on formalist assumptions. There was, however, a fundamental gap between these formalist theories of composition and the 'layered' modes of vision and drawing involved in the design process. This practice leaned more on the modern romantic notion of 'intuition' for its theoretical basis, once again forming an immanent conflict with the mimetic practice of classical and historical architecture. The paper draws a picture of a discipline centered on a 'theory of the plan,' a potentially modern discipline integrated with classical forms and details. It was clearly effective as a practice. However, structured by conflicts between theory and practice, history and form, mimesis and intuition, the Beaux-Arts was unable to defend itself at the philosophical and theoretical level the modernists engaged their attacks on this system. At the same time, the paper poses the question of how different modern architecture is from this system. Is not the 'theory of plan,' in its many transformations and guises, still the central discipline of twentieth century modern architecture, and is it not structured by basically the same kind of conflicts and paradox that were immanent to the Beaux-Arts system.
Many cultural heritages for the modern ages in Korea are becoming lost rapidly as a result of subsequent technological innovation and changes in industrial structures and other reasons. But they are indispensable for an understanding of history, tradition culture of Korea, and form the basis for development and advancement of future culture at the same time. Therefore, this study is aimed to review the protection of cultural heritage in Japan, establishing the protection policies in Korea. In Japan, The Advisory Committee for the Preservation and Utilization of Modern Cultural heritage was organized by The Agency for Cultural Affairs. And this classified modern cultural heritage into four fields, as like; (1)monuments, (2)buildings, (3)fine arts and historical heritage, and (4)life, culture, and technology to pursue concrete research and study. The next step is tarrying out investigations to identify these cultural heritages, which were once the backbone of Japanese modernization and are now in the process of being lost, in an effort to preserve them as cultural heritage of the Japanese modernization period. The investigation will have conducted on an about eight year scheme starting with 1996. And it's will ask all local boards of education(of the prefectures, cities, towns, and villages throughout the country) to supply all related records or documents available and to cooperate in field studies. So now, many cultural heritages for the modern ages in Japan have been designated as Important Cultural Properties, Registered Tangible Cultural Properties, Monuments, etc. And they have been prepared various tax policy(ex, reduction of the real estate tax). Also, that's examples are not only one by one but magnified with protection of large-scale construction associated with region. In addition, magnified with region's activities. In conclusion, in the process, protection has been extended to a broader variety of cultural properties and much consideration has been given to the methods of protection in Japan.