Ödön Lechner has been known as an architect who incorporates Hungarian folk motifs in creating a highly original Hungarian national style. Nevertheless, his work has been surprisingly neither exposed nor familiar to Korean audiences. This article attempts to reveal the unique characteristics of Lechner’s architectural thought and ideas along with his buildings in Budapest. First of all, this article presents the evolution of Lechner’s architectural thought by dividing his career into four marking periods. They are in chronological order to serve as a record of his architectural career. The authors then discuss his concern on the Hungarian ethnography in architecture while turing away from orthodox classicism. Subsequently, this article analyzes Lechner’s three major buildings located at Budapest. By doing so, it attempts to expose his underlying design ideas and to shed light on the most elegant works of the architect. Finally, it marks out Lechner's influences on young Hungarian architects.
The main purpose of this study is to reveal the properties and specialities of architectural space after Modernism. Space was the main theme of Modernity in architecture and they insist Modern architectural space had its own characteristics compared with the earlier period. With view that another paradigm of space is rising as a criticism of and departure from Modernity, this study try to show what is the contents of difference and how it express in reality. We can find a new trends in architectural spaces, that are the production of totally different circumstantial background as like information society, digital media environment, post structuralism, new science and heterotopian situation in urbanism. We can call it Post-Modernity in architectural space that would find the ‘Otheness' and expand the territory of architecture. It means not only the change of architectural space itself but also different cognition and perception of space is taking place. Contemporaru architectural space has lost its materiality and conventional socio-cultural functions. Dematerialization and media or image -like being is the new characteristics instead. It demands a new way of being in a different life-world as well as the new experience of architecture.
This paper attempts to interpret the meaning of Mies van der Rohe's famous aphorism that “less is more” in terms of space. From his assertion that the art of building is the spatial execution of spiritual decisions, one can presume that his art of building was revealed through his spatial execution consciously guided by creative principles. One of his spatial principles was less is more a representative motto for the creation of sparsely furnished space with few objects and little perceptible architecture. After his awareness of an open plan, Mies intended to create less architecture by designing a minimal form of structural frames and maximum openness of open plans and glazed walls. This study posits that Mies created more potential space, for which he intended his open plans and neutral frames to be viewed as less. His building was designed to serve as the background of works of art and the changing nature outside so restrained its own existential voice in favor of the achievement of total harmony.
Studies and reports on buddhist temples in Goryeo dynasty are rarely in the present situation. At this point of time new excavational reports and historic records offer many materials to understand a architecture in Goryeo period. Especially, temple site have various transitions, it is of great value to study. This article attempted a restorative study of a location, function, spacial arrangement, structure, building age is based on a measure and transition of temple layout that is based on the excavational result and related historic documents about Godal temple site in Yeoju. Godal temple site was a representative Zen buddhist temple in Goryeo Dynasty. It was difficult of access by watercourse because it was located in an inland in the upper Han River. Archaeological research and historical records has reveals that the temple was constructed with a minium of four levels[six terms]. We could recognized the central site of temple and buildings were constantly established, enovated or collapsed. It has went through many transition according as it encountered new sects and doctrines. Also it should perform various functions and overcome given conditions. Ultimately it let see greater diversity in the spacial composition, and layout. That is to say it were planed several separate areas, each was consisted of main buildings, once again was integrated into one temple.
The building site was presumed as the Howonjeokwon or the Dasiwonji established at the traffic route among western inland areas in old Pyeonghaegun. The groundwork was composed inclination terrace of two steps. The upper step was the territory of the main house of ceremony․ symbolic+lodging function and the down step was divided in the territory of both Ikrang-chae of boarding and lodging management function and the territory of Haengrang-chae․pavilion of rest․reception․management. The building composition by each territory formed space differentiation with the line of flow according to the thorough rule of court rank. The arrangement composition set the strong center axis in tandem, and it was the building arrangement interpreting the territory and the rule of court rank by function as the relationship of master and servant and was the building type emphasizing on the whole unity with the geometric symmetry structure. The Dasiwonji and the Hyeeumwonji had the common point which is the traffic architecture of semi-governmental management reinforcing the boarding lodging function in the place which a visitor stayed. The Haeeumwonji and Dasiwonji had the difference in the size, but was the same in the composition system of construction. The external space and the system of the line of flow decided from the functional territory separation and the hierarchical rank as thorough as the geometric arrangement focusing on the whole unity. Namely, it was the strict and unusual system of the line of flow depended on the thorough rule of court rank than the efficient approach or arrangement of the line of flow. After being established to be the Howonjeokwon at the end of Koryeo, it disappeared at the time of the invasion of Japanese pirates when it was the time of the King Woo in Koryeo. It is presumed that it was continued until both wars, Imjin․Byeongja, ago after changing its name to the Dasiwon, being restored to the small size at the end of Koryeo-at the early of Choseon.
Kyedan(戒壇) is an altar to perform a rite of Buddhist Initiation which gives Precept to a Buddhist monk. Sometimes it is called the Place of Precept and Mandala by Sanskrit. In this study, the Sutra of the Tang(唐) Dosun(道宣) regarding First Kyedan of Jetavana-anathapindasyarama(祇園精舍), which was the first temple such as, Kyedandokyung(戒壇圖經), Kiwonsadokyung(祇洹寺圖經), Sabunyul(四分律) were analyzed to find out original form and layout. Ultimately, the study was intended to examine the spatial formation-principle by comparing with Kyedan Temple. The results of this study could be summarized as below. First. Except for Kyedan in Bakryensa, the height of lower stone plate of Buddhist Bell-Shaped Stupa of Korean Kyedan is higher than three storied Kyedan that described in Kyedandokyung. Second. Buddhist Bell-Shaped Stupa above Kyedan was presumed that embodied image of Bell Pedestal and symbolism of overturned-bowl were combined together, when Kyedandokyung and Kiwonsadokyung were referred. It could be examined by the existence of stone lantern. Third. In Korea, the rite of Buddhist initiation that gives Precept in Kyedan has been considered impossible. However, when the rite was conducted, there was a possibility to establish wood stair. It is because that the Buddhist Stupa of Silleuuksa(神勒寺) and Woljeongsa(月精寺), which reflected the image of Kyedan had stone stair. Fourth, The method to build Kyedan of Dosun divided into Large Region and Small Region was applied to the method to construct Stone terrace behind Jeongmyeolbogung(寂 滅寶宮) like Tongdosa(通度寺) and complete Kyedan on the stone terrace. In other words, Jeongmyeolbogung became Kyedanwon(戒壇院) and Kyedan, itself became Small Region. The area of Stone terrace became Large Region and naturally, they constituted an Institution. Fifth, Korean Kyedan which is consist of Jeongmyeonlbogung and Kyedan is a Korean original composition principles of Kyedangaram(戒壇伽藍) that can satiate all the functions of Kyedan as a religious subject and the place of the rite of Buddhist initiation, as it had complex of Outdoor Kyedan, which was suggested by the sutra of Dosun and Institution of Kyedan.
The purpose of this study is to examine the planning principles and historical meaning of Eupchi constructed during the Joseon Dynasty. I investigated the general character of Eupchi based on analyses of published materials from the Joseon Dynasty. The Joseon Dynasty, which started in 1392, set up Eupchi in a position to effectively govern the whole country. Eupchi was differentiated from the surrounding villages, and became the center of administration and education. Eupchi was established based on techniques taken from the capital. Following precedence in the capital, Eupchi was transformed with spaces for Confucian ceremonies. The cityscape of Eupchi was also differentiated from the surrounding villages. Such transformation of Eupchi represents the progress of urbanization. The developments found in Eupchi spread around Korea, and mark an important stage in the historical evolution of Korean urbanization. The Joseon Dynsasty used similar techniques from the capital to establish Eupchi. However, I found some differences between Eupchi and the capital. The Joseon Dynasty recognized that walls could protect not only the capital city but also the country from foreign enemies. Protective walls were required for a capital, but not for Eupchi. In addition, Eupchi did not have commercial institutions supported by the Dynasty. This further demonstrates that different planning principles were used at Eupchi.
The purpose of this article is making investigation of the principal composition of the twin-pagodas in Buddhist temple through ornaments of a case preserving relics of Buddha in the east and west pagodas of Gameunsa temple. This research has an important meaning in clarifying that the concept of placement two Buddhas together with lotus sutra, which was only applied to Bulkuksa temple, has been extended to Gameunsa temple. And this observation gave us a clear explanation for the principal composition at the twin-pagodas in Buddhist temple plans. The author obtained the following conclusion from this article : The cases preserving relics of the Buddha for the west and east pagodas are globally in similar form as the type of a royal palace. But the different points between eastern and western can be seen on the existence of Buddhist statues on the base floor, set-up of the gate at railings, and 4 lion statues at a coner of the base floor. In the western pagoda, there are Buddha statues above the base-floor of the cases preserving relics. These Buddha statues are composed of a boy monks and angels with playing music for the praise of the Sakyamuni Buddha lecturing the Lotus sutra at YoungChui Mountain. On the other hand, in the eastern pagoda, Buddha statues on the cases preserving relics are composed of a the Four Devas and monks as a defending God of the nation of Buddha. In the eastern pagoda, one can see something that does not exist in the western pagoda, which is a gate located in railing of a case preserving the relics. This gate described the scene of the Sakyamuni Buddha entering into the pagoda of 7 treasures. In a corner of the case preserving relics in the eastern pagoda, there is another thing which does not exist in the western pagoda. This is a sculpture of a lion which symbols the seat of Lion supporting the Buddha in the Dabotap(the pagoda of 7 treasures). When we observe the form and structure, the descriptions at the railings, the gate, the shrine, the statue of a lion, and the accessories in jewelries, at the cases preserving the relics in the eastern pagoda, one can realize that they have the same combination structures between the ones at Dabotaps in Bulguksa temple and those in China as well as in Japan, all of which represent the Gyun-Bo-Tap-Pum of Lotus Sutra. Among the distribution rules in the twin-pagodas in Buddhist temple, the application of the ideal of lotus was known to be effected only to Bulguksa temple. But from the result of the present article, it is more clearly proved by applying the Gameunsa temple that the distribution theory in the twin-pagodas in Buddhist temple was in fact based on the ideal of lotus.