Keunsemal, Sinhang-ri, Dunpo-myeon Asan-si,Chungcheongnam-do is where the former President of Korea, Yun, Bosun was born. The houses of Yun, Il-Sun, Yun, Je-Hyung, Yun, Seung-Gu, and where the former President Yun was born are designated as cultural assets by the Korean government. The three houses of the Yuns are located in the center of the village and the size is much different from regular houses since they were created as large scale house of nobilities during the Chosun Dynasty. Along with the three Yun houses and other houses in the village show a great history and tradition of the history and modern times. Unlike other traditional village arrangement, this village was created during the end of Chosun Dynasty and extended into the modern times. From the village, you can see the changes in architecture within the 200 years from traditional Korean-style houses to modern houses. This investigation is a research / analysis of the architectural characteristics of Keunsemal, Sinhang-ri, Asan-si. People can observe changes in the different types of architectural forms of houses based on the history of Korea and time periods. Within the village, there are large scale house of nobilities which were built during the late Chosun Dynasty, common people’s houses, farmhouses which were built during the modern times, common people’s houses during the industrialization period, and modern houses with backyards. The village of Keunsemal, Sinhang-ri, Asan-si is a very special cultural asset for Korea because the houses in the village show a clear architectural process of change in styles of houses for Korean history.
1) The structural system of『Hwaeomgyeong』has its core in the fact it deals with certain themes repeatedly on the basis of 「Sipjipum」as a system of discipline.( The key of Euisang's ideas lay in referring to the whole 『Hwaeomgyeong』as Beopseong and expressing it with the term, 'Haeng'. Here 'Haeng' is a system of discipline based on 「Sipjipum」. This indicates that 『Hwaeomgyeong』can be fully represented just by 「Sipjipum」because the twos are structurally similar) (1) In 「Sipjipum」, a summary of 『Hwaeomgyeong』is contained. Thus descriptions of 「Sipjipum」may be like those of 『Hwaeomgyeong』. (2) 『Hwaeomgyeong』had a three-dimensional spatial structure which corresponds with the Heaven of Yok Gye Yuk Cheon and the Earth, when associated with places of preaching Buddhist sermons. 2) This researcher investigated stone platforms of the Buseoksa Temple with references to 『Hwaeomgyeong』and 「Sipjipum」. 1) All the platforms, whether their building is still remained on them or not, comply better with implications of 「Sipjipum」. 2) Different heights of the stone platforms and the axial refraction of the platforms brought by their shape changes all imply variations in discipline levels descrided in 「Sipjipum」, in terms of form and symbolic implication. Sites which mainly compose the stone platforms also comply with descriptions contained in 『Hwaeomgyeong』regarding the place, frequency and contents of preaching Buddhist sermons. In conclusion, the outside of the Buseoksa Temple is composed of architectural spaces for which contents of 『Hwaeomgyeong』and 「Sipjipum」and the frequency and place of preaching Buddhist sermons are fully considered and comprehended.
In that the Buddhism is the religion founded by Buddha, the settlement of Buddha's existence is very important in the temple building arrangement which symbolizes the Buddha's world. What symbolizes the Buddha in the temple are the pagoda and the Buddhist image. Among them, the Buddhist image is directly connected with the Golden Hall. This kind of double structure is settled as a typical pattern for the arrangement of buildings such as halls and pagodas. The earlier one between the pagoda and Buddhist image is the pagoda, of course. It can be inferred that, through the gradual expansion of the Buddhist images, the gravity was transferred from the pagoda to the Golden Hall. But, if the Buddhist image can be connected with the Golden Hall in that it was the product reflecting the requests on the Buddha and his teaching, the internal origin of the Buddhist image should also go back to the early Buddhism. In fact, the gravest building in Veṇuvana - vihāra or Jetavana - anāehapiṇḍasyārāṃa was the Golden Hall, the Buddha's residence. And in the summit of Gṛdhrakūṭa or Jetavana - anāehapiṇḍasyārāṃa where Buddha stayed long, there is the gandha - kuṭī the Buddha's place till now. It means that the symbolic request on the Buddha and his teaching had existed even before the Buddhist image and that this tendency could be connected with the generation of Buddhist image. This paper is to show that the hall / pagoda structure generalized in the building arrangement of later age was originated not just from the Buddhist image and the sarira pagoda but from the gandha - kuṭī and the hair pagoda, and therefore the two should coexist inevitably. It is an attempt to develop a little more in the ideological perspective the general theory that the pagoda and the Buddhist image were fused into one precinct of temple later in their respective origins. That is, it tries to recognize the relation of pagoda and hall not as the conflicting one but as the complementary one.
The purpose of this research is to rethink Alvar Aalto's architecture on the basis of the aesthetic concept of play. This attempt is valid because he had asserted the importance of play in his design. But more fundamentally, his critical view of the instrumentalised rationalism implied the idea that a human being is “Man the Player” as well as “Man the Thinker”, of which theory was elaborated in Johan Huizinga's Homo Ludens (1938). Premised on it, this paper investigated the evolution of the play idea in aesthetics and located Aalto's concept within the map. Summing up, his play was an intuitively grasped desire opposed to a rational requirement, which leads to a dialectical synthesis. This schema is similar to that of Schiller, in which Spiel reconciles the reason and the sense. However, Aalto's play could be differentiated into the "astonishingly rational" and "a jest", each of which roughly corresponds to the Spieltrieb (play impulse) and the sinnliche Trieb (sensuous impulse) in Schiller's thinking. On the other hand, Aalto's architecture illustrates play that could be interpreted as the overflow of surplus energy. This play is the very concept that can bridge the gap in the form-function formula of modern architecture. Aalto's play idea seemed to basically originate from his personality but its value must be confirmed by the Finnish litterateur Yrjö Hirn as Aalto mentioned in his statements (1953 & 1972). It appears that Aalto's play concept was materialised in architecture through his typical design language, such as the undulating wall, the aperspective space, the imitation of nature and the collage of heterogenous elements. However, we should be careful not to reductively analyse the application of play in practise. As Huizinga's comprehensive theory suggests, the play element exists in any cultural areas including any architectural activities. In conclusion, this paper argues that Alvar Aalto the Homo Ludens presented the possibility of critical rationalism in modern architecture by imbuing dry modernism with "the life enhancing charm" of "the art of play".
In this study, I investigated the function and the setting characteristics of 日type plan building ruins in the Hoe-amsa monastery site, that’s renovated by Zen priest Na-ong(1320-76) in the later Goryeo Dynasty(918-1392), through the comparative research between China, Japan, and Goryeo in that time. The ruins of 日type plan building, located in the east side of Buddha hall ruins, is the ruins of Jungryo(衆寮). It was called as Jeondanrim(旃檀林), and the name can be seen from the record(天寶山檜巖寺修造記) of Yi-saek(李穡, 1328-96). It’s name and the composition of plan is very similar to the Jungryo of Chinese and Japanese Zen monastery in 13th-14thcentury. And from it, we can see that, the priest Na-ong tried to introduce institution of Chinese Zen monastery, which he experienced during the time of study in China. But, the location of Jungryo in Hoe-amsa monastery is deferent from the Zen monastery of China and Japan, and it can be said as the setting characteristics of Hoe-amsa monastery in Goryeo Dynasty.
Jangan-sa is one of the Buddhist temples in the southeastern seaside district, which was restored directly after the termination of Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. Recently we could find out 4 records on the constructions of Daeoong - jeon in J angan-sa. These are <J ondori - Mookseo-myeong> written in the 12th year of Emperor Soonchi , <Jondori - Bachim - janghyeo Mookseo - myeong> written in the 8th year of Emperor Geonryung, <Mookseo - myeong> written in 1947 Buddha Era and <Mookseo - myeong> written in 1951 Buddha Era. Until the revelation of these records, the present building has been considered to be built in 1657, the 8th year of King Hyojong, based upon Kim Bang - han's「Jangan - sa Daeoong - jeon - gi」. Because the gongpo of Daeoong - jeon was finished with the type of the late period of Chosun Dynasty, we doubt of the correction on it's building date, just in the year of 1657. Now we are able to examine the building date and the alteration date, based upon the actual measurement and constructional records of Daeoong - jeon. So to speak, the building destroyed in 1592, had been restored in 1658, the 9th year of King Hyojong and was reconstructed in 1744, the 20th year of King Youngjo. Afterward it was repaired on small scales in 1947 and in 1951. Though this building is considered to be lack of the completeness owing to the later alterations, it is still worthy heritage for the research on the building type at the directly after the termination of Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592.
The Great south gate of Seoul Castle, Sung-Rye-Mun, the east gate of Seoul Castle, Hung-In-Ji-Mun, the south gate of Hwa-Sung Castle, Pal-Dal-Mun and the north gate of Hwa-Sung Castle, Jang-An-Mun are typical significant castle gate of Chosun Dynasty. They have a lot in common with exterior. Additionally there are also something common in dimensions. At first, the arch dimensions of lower story is very similar and the columns of upper story are the regular intervals. Purpose of this study is to confirm similarities above mentioned were intended on purpose and if then what was the reason. The results of this study were described separately as follows. 1. The widths of the arches were based on each 16Cheok and 18Cheok. 2. The heights of the arches followed less strictly rule than the widths. 3. The widths of the arches, 16Cheok was same size as width of middle-size road (中路, Jung-Ro) inside the Castle town in Chosun Dynasty. 4. The widths of the arches, 16Cheok was the standard size of exit went through castle and then the standard size of road arrived at one's destination. 5. The widths of the arches had an effect on the intervals between the columns of the upper story. Finally we recognized that in Chosŏn Dynasty the widths of the gate arches in Seoul castle and Hwa-Sung castle had relevance to the city planning largely and widths of the gate arches had an effect on the intervals between the columns of the upper story partly.
Through the 20th century architectural theory of rational thinking and the principles according to the statement of the firm, Le Corbusier's early works by analyzing the language of architecture, including his architectural concepts and helps the understanding of modern architecture. Masters of modern architecture as a place among the works of Le Corbusier in the 1920s, ‘Le Corbusier’s White Period’ homes to target by age, and that his initial concept of the formation process of clarifying, further the construction of his golden age will be the key to understand. I selected housings from Maison Citrohan to villa Savoye, the category of architectural elements by considering the development process, he examines developments of the concept of modern architectural space. In analysis process, First of all, I am focused on between each element in the development process to review and explicate the integration process. The advent of the machine which he lived, because of its incredible potential reorganization of human society, as well as to celebrate the start of a new lifestyle. His architectural language of the times in the machinism could achieve progress and modern art, which is a new interpretation of the natural world.