A few archeological excavation of Buddhist temple sites of Koguryo were reported with information of site arrangement. The interpretation of such information is very important not only for the explanation of Korea early Buddhist architecture but also for the development of East Asian cases in general since no archeological evidences of the same period were found in other countries such as China. Though the investigation of the four temple sites this paper attempt to identify their date of construction and the process of change. The study depended much on comparative studies of the change of site elements such as pagoda, image hall., corridor, and other buildings. The study could conclude that the site of SangO-Ri must be the earliest case which was followed by ChungRung-Sa, which was built in around 427AD. The site of ToSung-Ri was the case which was the work of the rate 5th century. Such process of the development of Buddhist architecture in Koguryo unveils the fact that the process of change was a continuous flow toward a consistent goal of change that had much to do with the contemporary religious situation.
Dosan Sedans was built in 1560, when Toege I Whang(1500-1571) was 60, as a place in which to study and teach disciples. The building was built to a humble 3-kan system which was a popular form of sodang in the 16th century, There found an enlargement of space by attaching outer walls around three sides which was designed by Toege himself. Minimum in space, moderation in form, conrol of embellishment, hermit scholar's aethetics became basic concept of the architecture of Dosan Sodang. After completion of sodang, Toege wrote many poems about pond, walls, flower bed and natural surroundings like sheer cliff, winding river and even rural daily life of villagers around the building. It could be sud that ,for Toege, architecture was cogniged as a whole complex of building and its surrounding natural, artificial and human circumstances.
Accoring to many studies which concerned with the types of folk houses, there are many types of folk houses in Korean peninsula and its areal distribution had been determined by the barrier of mountains, in general. But we have neglected to examine the overlapped areal distribution still now. If two types of culture with different housing type contact at one region, it may interrelated each other and invent certain exclusive charicteristics. And there are its own attitude of traditional culture in Kyung-buk provingce where serveral types of folk houses settled together. The purpose of this research is to clarify the general pattern of culture in terms of folk houses in northern Kyung-buk province and to suggest a clue to solve the cultural inter-relationship each other, By classification of the collected plans in this area, the authors try to find out the charicteristics of the serveral types and there areal distribution. Finally, we can find out that certain types of folk houses located in northern Kyung-buk province had formed their cultural regions and these homogeneous regions are overlapped, partly.
The typical Japanese house has the characteristics of open dwellings to make them cool in the hot and humid summer. And then the traditional town house 'Machiya', being built very closely to each other and walled up both sides, it has taken the open-oriented characteristics in itself. The purpose of this study is to clarify that the open-oriented of traditional 'Machiya' has been succeeded to the new 'Machiya' in the latest. The new 'Machiya' shows the open-oriented, taking the ventilative 'Huki-nuke' space of traditional 'Machiya' as the new spatial formal elements, in the changes such as scale material space organization. The characteristics of 'Huki-nuke' space are represented as follows ;
1. The facade of the traditional 'Machiya', which has taken on a semitransparent qualty, has been generally changed to the closing qualty except for the open parts of shop and garage. This facade of the new 'Machiya' has been taken to be in keeping with the existing town as much as possible.
2. A series of three rooms, composed of shop/living dining kitchen/room from the road, have been dispersed to every floors in a building with a very extensive scale. But this serial and linear type remains as the loosefit space, and the long dwellings of the upper stories are divided by type each dwelling unit.
3. 'Tori-niwa', which is a consecutive and penetrating space, connects the road with the rooms of dwelling and functions as the circulation of man thing energy, The new 'Machiya' changed to the multi-story, the corridor and the stair have been fumed up as the elements in the place of 'Tori-niwa' The 'Huki-nuke' space was locted in the hall, stairwell, living dining kitchen room, and so on.
4. The small court yard 'Tsubo-niwa' and back yard 'Ura-niwa' at the both ends of living spaces would be made a hole in a series of rooms and enclosed by the neighboring 'Machiya'. On the contrary the new 'Machiya' at present takes in the private and closing organization enclosing the innercourt.
5. The open-oriented 「In」 or 「Out」 is not brought out because of the delicate spatial formal configuration in the traditional 'Machiya'. But the open-oriented 「In」, all sides being closed by walls, is well brought out in the new 'Machiya'.
This study is to analyze the geometrical composition system for the plan of S. Pietro by Michelangelo. In the result of study, the plan is based on the geometrical elements of circle square cross, and shaped to symbolize the Universe which consists of the Heaven the Earth the Man. The plan is constituted of the conception of composition into hierarchy and repetition intersecting 45 degree the same sized square with inscribed square in a circle. Such the geometrical composition system can be found out a large number of example to the geometrical composition of architecture and city planning from Vitruvius to Bramante and Da Vinci. This plan is disposed in balance as the regularly proportional system of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, which is formed the principal space. And the interior space is constituted of the organic space system, expanding to the direction of horizontal, vertical(ascension), development for primary space and secondary space with center in the geometric composition system of altar.
This study aims at showing how C.N.Ledoux applied architecturally the idea of Enlightenment in the Ideal City. Enlightenment of 18th century not only developed neo-classicism in the field of art, but also brought about the changes of ideology and philosophy of the era. C.N.Ledoux, one of the most influential architects of this period, expressed abstractly and symbolically the essential idea of Enlightenment; the skepticism of God's authority, the liberty and equality of man, charity and the willingness of controlling the power of nature, and so on.
Cette etude vise a trouver I'intention originelle de Le Corbusier(1887-1968) dans les Maisons Jaoul a Neuilly-sur-Seine (1951-1955). En general, on regarde ces maisons comme no autre architecture do Le Corbusier ou un des oeuvres do Brutalisme International. Mais, en consideration du developpement architectural de Le Corbusier, les Maisons Jaoul a ete we des deux realisations de la maison economique en serie que Le Corbusier a etudiee pour la vie: l'un a ete l'Unite d'Habitation a Marseille(1947-1952) pour la cite verticale en serie et l'autre les Maisons Jaoul pour une cite horizontale en serie. Pourtant, ces maisons ne sont pas parfaites pour l'homme. Selon Marie Jaoul qui est une petite-fille d'Andre Jaoul, Le Corbusier a prefere l'harmonie entre la nature et l'architecture plutot qu'entre l'homme et l'architecture.
Cette etude vise a reveler une verite du Nouveau Brutalisme des Smithson (Alison et Peter). Nous examinerons donc d'abord l'universalitf de leur oeuvre representatif, Ecole Secondaire de Hunstanton(projet, 1949; concours, 1950; construction, 1951-1954) et projet de Maison Soho a Londres(1952) comme un mouvement architectural. Et apres nous trouverons la faussete de leur but, realisation de l'ethique architecturale, sur ce mouvement en comparant les oeuvres des Smithson avec les deux constructions considerees souvent comme la categorie du Nouveau Brutalisme, la Calorie d'Art de l'Universite Yale(1951-1953) realisee par Louis I. Kahn(1901-1974) et le Centre Cuturelle de Georges-Pompodou(1971-1977) par Renzo Piano et Richard Rogers. En resultat, l'etique de Nouveau Brutalisme soutenue par les Smithson et defendue par Reyner Banham etait seulement pour cacher low limite architecturale et sa faiblesse. Ce mouvement etait aussi un mouvement personel plutot que general. On ne pourrait pas donc considerer les Smithson comme nouveaux brutalistes.