A lot of relics were unearthed in the Shinchang-dong wetland site, which can help restore prehistoric life style, including construction tools such as wood doors, wood hammers, ax handgrips, sickle handgrips, wedges, awls, wood pillars and connection members, food vessels made of earth or wood and fish, shell fish, seeds and remains of weapons. In particular, a door was found in the site, which was measured at 110cm long and 37cm wide. If restored it will be 75cm wide. The door seems to date back as far as the 1st century B. C., which would be the oldest one ever discovered in Korea. This paper is intended to explore the implications of the door by investigating the environment of the Shinchang-dong wetland site bearing the relics intact, manufacturing techniques and times of manufacturing of the door as well as attributes of doors presented in the literature related to old time architecture such as Goguryeo tomb paintings and house-shaped vessels. It also intends to provide basic data for study of residential architecture in prehistoric times.
This study deals with construction contract bid-rigging by Japanese contractors who monopolized the construction market of the Korean Peninsula during the Japanese colonial rule, and investigates the abuses of the contract bid-rigging. First of all, construction contract bid-rigging in Korea was triggered by Japanese construction contractors and contract brokers, who had savored the benefits of bidrigging in Japan and had repeated the bid-rigging in Korea since 1903. Second, the agency played a significant role to mediate construction contractors, and existed throughout the Japanese colonial rule on the Korean Peninsula with changing their names. Most of them were engaged in major contract bid-rigging scandals. Among them was Construction Association of Korea, which existed for over 13 years. The agencies had took part in governmental services since the mid-1930s when Japan exploited Korean people during wartime, and focused on sweating human resources for the constructions. Third, one of the biggest construction bid-rigging scandals during the Japanese colonial rule was "the 1st and 2nd scandal on Daegu construction contract bid-rigging." Indeed, the second scandal paved the way for the serial scandals: "Kyeongseong construction contract bid-rigging scandal", "Busan construction contract bid-rigging scandal", and other cases throughout the nation. Fourth, along with the contract bid-rigging cases related to the Japanese Government-General of Korea and local authorities, bid-riggings firmly took rooted in local governments' farmland reclamation projects in the 1920s and the poor relief services in the 1930s. The "bid-rigging charges" forced contractors to compensate their losses with exploiting material costs and labor costs, generating serious problems. The construction contract bid-rigging enabled Japan to monopolize the construction industry and to sweat farmers on the Korean Peninsula. Against this backdrop, contract bid-rigging by Japanese construction contractors during the its colonization made Korean contractors ruled out, and helped Japanese monopolize the industry. A large amount of bid-rigging charges drove Japanese contractors to do fraudulent work with cheap materials and to exploit Korean labor force.
Signal fire was a communication system which deliver urgent news by smoke and light. It informed the condition of the border to the central government and the military base rapidly. This research was to analyze the border signal-fire which is the main facility of military protective duty for safety of sea side in chosun dynasty. The results of this research were described separately as follows. 1. The border signal-fire has three types of facility layout, The majority was one-site, near two-site, separate type. The majority was near two-site type. 2. Plan configuration of signal-fire stand which is separated with circle, oval, round-rectangular and rectangular type roughly was constructed with circle type generally. Four types of signal-fire stand was observed in southern and western sea side impartially. However, in eastern side, circle type of signal-fire stand was mainly found. Therefore, regional characteristics could be considered partially. 3. The height of signal-fire stand was about 8～10m. The diameter of combustion chamber on the signal-fire stand was 2～3m in circle type, and the dimension of rectangular type was about 1.9×1.9～3.2×3.0m. 4. Building base that protect ground moisture and infilteration of rainfall was found in 10 border singal-fire, the height of it was about 0.3m～2.5m.
This paper presents a study on the Palazzo Firenze of B. Ammannati, designed between 1550~1572. He was active in Rome and Firenze in the middle of 16th Century. His most important project, such as Palazzo Pitti, is located in Firenze. But there are some projects that are important as well as Palazzo Pitti in Rome, such as villa Giulia and Palazzo Firenze. Usually, in the history of Western Architecture, the period in which Ammannati was active is denominated as late-Renaissance or Mannerism. In this period there was very important progress in field of artistic theory. There were active many great Masters such as Michelangelo, Vignola and Giulio Romano. But, over the all, the most important characteristic of this period was a transition period between Renaissance and Baroque. This paper try to reveal such characteristics reflected in architectural projects designed in this period, focusing on, over the all, B. Ammannati and his Palazzo Firenze project..