On behalf of the royal women, SangGung(尙宮:The head of female servants in the palace) and NaIns(內人: Female servants caring for royal families in the palace) were dispatched in order to attend a funeral at the royal tomb. The NaInGaGa(內人假家) is the temporary building for SangGung and NaIns in the royal tomb. It is comprised of lodgings for them and also workrooms and warehouses to prepare ritual offering for the dead King or Queen. In the early Joseon dynasty, the NaInGaGa was utilized until a funeral at the royal tomb. Since 1674, NaInGaGa for the 3 years-period lamentation was started constructing separately. At these processes, the plan and placement of NaInGaGa was changed. This study based on the SanReungDoGam-EuiGwae (山陵都監-儀軌: The report on constructing royal tomb). The SanReungDoGam-EuiGwae written since 1800 have illustration about NaInGaGa. The illustration and explanation about NaInGaGa become a important clue that make suppose detailed space of NaInGaGa
The purpose of this paper is a study on the dome plan of S. M. del Fiore Church of F. Brunelleschi. The results of study are as follows: 1. The planning of floor, elevation and cross section plan of S. M. del Fiore church is basically planned by each other correlation. In particular, the octangular form of geometrical standard which is formed with altar as the center at the crossing part is important component elements which is decided by not only the dome, but form and size of the drum and floor plan form of the lantern 2. The dome which has been planned by F. Brunelleshi has completed the new dome, preserving gothic thought intended by the church plan after study on architecture of ancient Rome with Pantheon. And the dome which is a main space of church through all aspects of plan, structure, function and construction about the dome is a opportunity in the beginning of Renaissance architecture which is a new epoch and a turning point of architecture on various point of view. 3. The dome which is constructed by F. Brunelleshi has been planned through the innovative solution by the refusal of traditional semicircle form dome, centering use and creation double-shell structure form for the first time in history. And the construction of dome has been solved with the invention of various construction equipments and machineries, the stone rib planned for connection and reinforcement about shells of the octangular form, the support method for reduction the gravity of bricklayers work and the brick work of nock-patterned shape which is masonry construction method of the architecture of ancient Rome.
The purpose of this study lies on reinterpreting the geography books in Joseon dynasty as records of the cities and consequently suggesting directions for further urban research. Geography books of Joseon dynasty are valuable references to understand the national policy, and imply that the focus of the contents is on the system. Especially, military system is an important concept to understand city type in that period, relationships between cities, selection of location, etc. The results of review are as following: First, military system is not a permanent fixture and therefore reflects changes in urban policies along with the history. The system suggests valuable clues on urban development as it is state-run, and closely associated with national land development. Second, counties and prefectures under jurisdiction of district called Eupchi(邑治) had cities as important as or even more important than local government such as Yeong-a(營衙), Jinbo(鎭堡), Yeok(驛: administrative cities). Such special regions need to be studied as other type of cities in Joseon dynasty by defining their architectural characteristics and roles. Third, the relationship of cities such as Eupch, Yeong-a, and Jinbo, was reorganized according to the local military system. Eupchi, administrative city, along with Yeong-a and Jinbo evolved into a military city as it became systematically organized. The characteristics of Yeok needs to be reconsidered in the context of such new inter-city relationship. Fourth, considerations which should be reviewed in the geography based on this concept can be mainly classified into architecture and landscape. This will also lay the foundation, and suggest new directions for further research for Eupchi, Yeong-a, Jinbo, and Yeok. Fifth, description of the geography looks simple at first sight, but with thorough understating on the system, there are chances to interpret objective reasoning of position and landscape in the overall flow of region, area, etc. Bongsu(烽燧), signal-fire, can be an object of comparison with geographical features and position. Furthermore, advantageous position is a historical and geographical element showing the major context of the region.
This research focuses on the role of Giovanni Marinioni during the formation of the modern cartography and cadastre during the 18th century. Initial study began with Giambattista Nolli's Roman map noticing not much information was available to acknowledge his activities during his Milan period before the departure to Rome. It became evident that Marinoni was a key person to understand the complex circumstances in which the professional training and formation of Giambattista Nolli took place as later worked as an anonymous intern during the elaboration of Theresian Cadastre of Milan. The other important figures are Leandro Anguissola and Giovanni Filippini. Anguissola's position and precedent work facilitated Marinoni's multidisciplinary activities that he had performed in Vienna and Milano in the field of making urban maps of those two cities. On the other hand, Filippini not only collaborated with Marinoni but also introduced Nolli in the field of cartography. These activities show transitional and dual aspects that characterized the period in which important irreversible changes that occur during the reign of Habsburg empire and in the rest of the Europe toward the formation of modern society and state. Marinoni's theories and praxis greatly influenced Nolli's later commitment under the Savoia and later on the elaboration of the 'Pianta Grande di Roma' in 1748.
The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of the use of the western building system with the change of the architectural design in the Japanese colonial period focused on the facility built by Joseon Government-General in 1910s. Through the 131 cases of governmental building, the tendency of the use of western building system. After 1910, Japanese Imperialism adopted the western wooden building system which main structure was made with combination of small pieces of timber for building the modern governmental facility because of the political and financial intention. So, all facilities were designed similarly by the structural module and the facade was finished by the feather boarding in the same with the ‘sitamitakei-giyohu’ in Japan. the functional requirements of each facility was not revealed. Such an western wooden building system was used until 1920s with the change of the facade by the mortar coating. But, in 1920s-1930s, the building system have begun to change. The use of the brick system caused some changes although the planing concept was still lasted. On the other hand, the use of the reinforced concrete led to more changes on the overall scheme.
This study is basically about four-guardian-statutes-building-gate in 17th Century. In the field of art-history, there are four-guardian-statutes made of clay in order that the statutes are so gigantic and grotesque enough to threaten all the devils. This purpose of this study is to make sure that the similar variation occurred at the four-guardian-statutes-building-gate in 17th century. The results of this study are as follows. First, only Da-Po style four-guardian-statutes-building-gates were built in famous four temples separately from 1612 until the Manchu war of 1636. And there are gigantic four-guardian-statutes made of clay in the building. Second, there are Chul-mok Ik-gong style buildings were built in 1660s at Bo-Rim-Sa and Neung-Ga-Sa. The buildings including four-guardian-statutes-building-gate of Song-gwang-sa built in 1636 probably are all similar to earlier Da-Po style four-guardian-statutes-building-gates in the viewpoint of structural type and size of building. Third, it began to build Ik-gong style four-guardian-statutes-building-gates in 1676 at Su-ta-sa.