After Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592 was over and the situation was coped with, Chang-Kyoung Palace and Chang-Duk Palace were rebult, and In-Kyung Palace and Kyung-Duk Palace were built during the reign of Kwang Hae Kun. Many utilitarians were engaged with the construction as a manager, and they devoted themselves to improve technology. As a result, craftsmen were treated so valuable, compared to the past, that they were consulted about the technical problems under construction, the process of making an estimate, and the management of construction materials. Moreover, famous craftsmen obtained the government service. And there were various attempts on organizing and compensating workmen in order to manage them efficiently. In addition, the know-how of manufacturing a blue tile, which had been failed to succeed due to the war, was revived, and manufacturing a yellow tile, which had not been used, was studied by utilitarians. Finally, There were many kind of technical attempts and development under the construction of palaces, which gave utilitarians a chance to express their ideas, expected practical science, and assembled craftsmen who had scattered due to the war, during the reign of Kwang Hae Kun
Basic concept of this study is that architectural form as a material at present has meaning for the dweller's life on the past historical plane. Main method to recover history is ethnographic interview to dwellers. Secondary method is to analyze ancestors' writings, buildings in the background of the family photos, and past drawings and then to relate them with architectural form at present. Taxonomy is a starting point: general name of the building by outside researcher is quite different from it by inside dwellers. 'Haengrang-chae', servant quarter, has never been used for servants. Function of the haengrang went outside thatched houses at the front village. Firsthand observation or simple analyses as results of several precedent research are reexamined and criticized through this study. The mansion has moaning when we synthesize with the site location based on farming land and tenant farmer, and decline of the Kyongpo Lake. Territoriality of the mansion is reinterpreted to 'In-Out Structure' by Yin-Yang thinking, Dwellers extend buildings gradually to outside village, surrounding rear hills, the lake, DongHae Sea, and finally goes to imaginative Taoist heaven beyond real nature through the literary life. Confucius principle, known to govern upper class house at Yi Dynasty also affect general composition of the buildings: perpetuation of the family by ancestor worship, elder dominance and male dominance, fraternity love in the extended family, charity display by reception of guests, Taoist scholarly life harmonized with nature. However, the study of the particular life and usage of the dwellers reinforces or corrects general supposition of precedent researches. Unique shape of the house has been formed by convenience of the dwellers' life style, early modernized free thought over the rigid Confucius design principle, and female power in male dominant society.
This paper is an architectural paper which has been studied about dowelling form and culture in southwestern island area of Korea from 18C up to now. The goal of this research is to present the basic data in new modeling development of dwelling house. This area had less cultural interchange than inland area because of geographical conditions. Therefore, so far, many traditional factors have been handed down and especially, a good many commoner's traditional houses exit. The traditional houses is composed of Anchae (a central house), Sarangchae (an attached house of Anchae). Sometimes, Sarangchae was ommitted according to the circumstance of the house. Generally, the form of arrangement of house is divided into two shapes; One is 'ㅡ' shape which has only Anchae and the other is 'ㄱ' shape which has Anchae and Sarangchae. Approximately, since 1970's, new type of house has been built in this area. Usually, Inside this house are living room, kitchen, toilet, utility and 3 rooms. Wall is made of brick and roof is made of concrete's slabe. We can not find the traditional culture in this type of houses. The house in the futrue, the factors of cuture and the convenience of the present age have to be coexisted.
The purpose of this study is to interpret a house as material into culture. Main method is an ethnographic interview with dwellers as a part of a participant observation, a kind qualitative study. Significantly two different types of folk housing are discovered in East and West areas of the Cheju Island. In the East, kitchen itself forms a separated building, Jeongji-gori, whereas in the West, kitchen is within a main building, An-gori. Different type of kitchen is formed by the different family system. While independent family system of son and father selects a separate kitchen building as a general rule of Cheju Island, an extended family system between father and son selects same kitchen, Jeongji-gori, in the east area. Natural environment of infertile soil of east area makes family work together and eat together. Inner space of the kitchen building is utilized not only in cooking but also in eating, working, and sleeping. In order to explain folk house type, a 'culture area' concept is suggested. The interrelated 'cultural type' of architecture behind a physical surface 'type' is suggested as a new typology.
This Study starts from a recognition that the architecture is based on the process demanded by substantial needs as well as pure theoretical logic system. So this study aims at proposing another point of view differentiating process and principle of architecture from pure theoretical logic system in the creative process of the Governor's Palace by analyzing drawings in chronological order. Even though the Governor's Palace had not been built because of discord between authorities of India and Le Corbusier, it is undoubtedly one of the best proposals which contains very concepts and ideas of later Le Corbusier's architectural intentions. In the first design stage, overall conception of the building was carried out in the sketches and drawings till Jan, 1954 and in the second stage, the elaboration of the project was pursued till Mar. 1995. The scheme tends to begin too large and general in character, becoming tighter and more complex under pressure from the client and adjustments required by the design process itself. For example, scale reduction, division and development of internal circulation system and applying his early 'Five Points'. So new solutions are searched by oscillating between compromise modifications and radically different solutions in contracting the first ideas. From all these, it is concluded that the early doctrine (Five Points) are adjusted and extended towards another stage by the use of restricted pilotis, the concept of fenetre en longueur transformed into a sub stricture of facade, sustained concept of le plan libre, les toits jardins extended towards concept of the urban area. And these formal intentions of the Governor's Place has been carried through other contemporary projects like Mill Owner's Association in 1954 and Villa Shodan in 1952.
This study was to examine the relationship with the changes of computer technologies that was influenced in human sensorial perception and the changes of aesthetical expression in architecture that was expressed in Henri Ciriani's work after 1970's. As a result, the human sensorial perception that was caused by the changes of technologies has influenced on Henri Ciriani's space concepts and expressions of materials and forms. According to it, the aesthetics in a period was determined by the use of developped technologies. In my opnion, this could be a plastic art expressions.
The Purpose of this Study is to find the Modern Movements which had done important roles on the development of modern church architecture and sacred art in the first half of 20th century. I had investigated the background and process of the movements, and analyzed the buildings which represented the movements. And I compared the architectural fruits of 'Riturgical Movement' and 'L' art Sacré Movement. The results are summarized as follows : First, there are two important movements in Catholic church in the backgrounds of the innovative changes of modern church architecture, Those are 'Riturgical Movement' which pursuits to establish a closer relation between clergy and congregation, and to make the positive participants in the service not mere observers and 'L' art Sacré Movement' which pursuits to accept modern secular art into church. Second, both movements had been developed on the bases of the theological studies with tow monasteries - Benedictine Order and Dominican Order - as leader. And the main concept was a kind of revival movement which recovers the Christian tradition. Third, The two movements began from the different themes and in the different regions. But they exerted influences each other, and achieved successful fruits in the Catholic churches of England and Swiss in 1960'. Fourth, 'Riturigical reformation' and 'Acceptance of modern art' had been officialized and generalized through the second Vatican Council(1962-1965).