This research focuses on the cadastre and cartographic tradition regarding the representation of Rome that had lasted until the middle of 18th Century. Since the early period of Roman Republic until the early 18th Century, map was considered as a effective medium to record the status of urban facts and also a manifestation of changing perception of reality. These facts allow to diagnose social and conventional changes that had occurred in the field of representation techniques and methodologies derived from diverse intention and objective in elaboration of each map. Cartography also has affinity to architectural drawing as many categories of individuals are involved, clients, researchers, craftsmen, publisher and collectors. Fundamental task of documenting the contemporary physical reality was given to the map, however, as architects had practiced through the drawings, cartographers also reconstruct in subjective way specific buildings and urban aspects according to various needs and demands. As such, philology and imagination play important role as two constitute extreme poles in the evolution of the cadastre. Through analysis of paradigmatic examples in the genealogy of cartography of Rome, it was possible to understand the changing episteme that testify the mentality and custom in the field of visual representation.
This paper studies the style emergence of Liujin Dougong in the ancient Chinese architecture. Dougong is the bracket set of the ancient Chinese wood structural architecture, and Liujin Dougong is one of the late styles of Chinese Dougong. It emerged in the period of the Ming Dynasty and has been installed in imperial palaces and imperial temples till the late period of the Qing Dynasty. Through the long term field survey and documental investigation, this research found out the some prototypes of Liujin Dougong among the earlier Xia-ang style Dougongs in the Song and Yuan Dynasty architectures. The symptom of style change appeared in the bracket composition. In the beginning, because Shuatou, the horizontal member just on Xia-ang was needed to be fixed to the inner main structure system, it was changed to the diagonal member and replaced Xia-ang. It brought continuous changes, the other horizontal members of Dougong also began to change to the diagonal form. And in accordance with these compositional changes of Dougong members, the decoration of inner parts also began to change. This paper analyzed every step of the compositional and decorative changes from Xia-ang Dougong style to Liujin Dougong style. In the addition, it also proposed the typical model of Qing style Liujin Dougong of which tail end is not placed on the beam and is just placed under the purlin, based on the its own research and analysis.
The retail store, which appears in various ways of the modern city, is the architectural result that the merchandise is finally delivered to consumers. The relationship between the commerce based on manufacturing and distribution and the retail store as urban architecture can be understood not only from the viewpoint of economics and business administration but also the problem of the formation of urban history and urban organization. The modern industrial development in Korea had been progressed by the state led, as the manufacturing and distribution developed in turn. This social and economic situation influenced the formation of the retail store of the city. This is different from the West, which the development has been conducted together. The cosmetics sales space, which is the subject of this study, has changed in various forms from the 1960s to the 1990s. Cosmetics brand retail shop is a corporate brand-based space, but paradoxically, it has a historical characteristic of urban architecture in that it is branding city street. This specificity of Seoul is unexplained by the development process of the Western and does not exist as a physically huge or special construction sometimes. However, it operates as a urban architecture in Seoul where the complicated.
It is difficult to build a hipped and gable roof in slender rectangular type due to restraint in variation of lateral length caused by gongpo arranged on the side, purlin space and the form of gable part and aesthetical effect of chunyeo maru. Against this backdrop and with the assumption that this phenomenon is more apparent in roofs of three-bay-kan Buddhist temples with the hipped and gable roof among national treasure Buddhist temples, this study has aimed to prove that a roof can be built in a less slender rectangular type than that of flat form and to present the building methodology and found the following findings.
First, The ratio of lateral to longitudinal length of the roof has been adjusted by protruding the chunyeo and the method of adjusting the ratio of lateral to longitudinal length of the roof is considered to be determined depending on the availability of woods to be used in chunyeo.
Second, in order to symmetrically arrange the edge of the roof, which is critical from the perspective of construction morphology, the chunyeo angle has been intentionally adjusted to reduce the gap of length between the front roof and the lateral roof.
To sum up, the characteristic of the hipped and gable roof, which is difficult to be built in slender rectangular type, is more clearly shown in the roof and it is identified that the length of the front roof and the lateral roof has been intentionally adjusted to achieve the symmetrical arrangement of roofline of the roof edge.
The purpose of this study was to comprehend the selection process of quarry and the quarry Jogyedong through the Salleung-uigwes in royal tombs constructions in the late Joseon period. Especially, it is to comprehend about the effect by difference of use of stone between Daebuseokso and Sobuseokso. Following conclusions have been reached through the study. First, the quarry of Daebuseokso had been selected very carefully through the quality check process. Second, the quarry of royal tombs around the capital was located at Mt. Bulam in the east and Mt. Bukhan in the west. This is because the nature of the procurement of stone, which is important for transportation, is that it is necessary to prepare the mountains close to the royal tombs. Third, the locations of quarry of between Daebuseokso and Sobuseokso were differently selected. The quarry of Daebuseokso was located at a distance of three times distant from Sobuseokso. Forth, the epigraph related to quarry is located in Sareung construction in the valley of Jogyedong. This is a very important data to confirm the location of royal tombs construction.