The impact of storage temperature on the changes in acid value(AV), peroxide value(POV), color value, total phenolic content(TPC), and antioxidant activity in perilla seed(PS) was investigated. The PS was stored at 25, 35, and 45℃ for four weeks. An increase in the storage temperature resulted in significantly increased AV, POV, redness, and yellowness of the PS. Conversely, TPC, antioxidant activity, and redness of the PS significantly decreased. The changes in the AV and POV followed a first-order kinetic model, and the kinetic parameters such as k, t1/2, Q10 and Ea were calculated. The k and t1/2 values decreased with increasing storage temperature and the Q10 values for the AV and POV were 1.56, 1.91, 4.61, and 3.43, respectively. The Ea for the changes in of the AV and POV in the PS were 70.40, 102.63 kJ/mol, respectively. The half-life values for the AV and POV of the PS at 25℃ were 169.52 and 373.18 days, respectively, while the values at 45℃ for those, were 28.47 and 27.93 days, respectively.
Plant genetic resources are fundamental materials for crop improvement to enhance productivity and an insurance against unforeseen threats to agricultural production. Continuous advancement in crop improvement depends on discovery of new sources of genetic variation, accurate identification of lines with favorable traits, and their efficient and judicious use. Core collections (~10% of the entire collection) and mini core collections (~10% of the core or ~1% of the entire collection) have been suggested as a gateway to enhance utilization of germplasm. Using passport data, characterization and evaluation data, core and/or mini core collections have been developed in chickpea, groundnut, pigeonpea, pearl millet, sorghum, finger millet and foxtail millet at ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. Evaluation of these subsets has resulted in identification of new sources of genotypic variation. The concept and process of developing mini core collections has been recognized worldwide as an “International Public Good” (IPG). Many national programs have shown immense interest in evaluating mini core collections for identification of new sources of variation for use in crop improvement programs. To date, 84 sets of mini core of chickpea, groundnut, pigeonpea, sorghum, pearl millet, foxtail millet and finger millet have been supplied to researchers in 13 countries. Feedback revealed that researchers in national programs were able to identify new sources of variation for favorable traits, such as early maturity, resistance to pests and diseases, large seed size, and high grain yield. Seeds of mini core collections could be available to researchers globally for research and training purpose.
Sorghum is a rich source of various phytochemicals including phenolic compounds that have potential to significantly benefit human health. Phytochemical production may be induced not only by genotype but also by a number of environmental factors including temperature and an amount of sunshine. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of planting dates and harvesting stages on the quality traits of ‘Donganme,’ a grain sorghum variety developed to produce high antioxidants. ‘Donganme’ was planted in three locations on four dates from early May to early July. Each planted fraction was harvested 35, 40, 45, 50, and 55 days after the head shooting date, respectively. The results showed that significant differences existed between the growth period and content of polyphenol and flavonoid. The sorghum harvested at 35 days after head shooting had the higher polyphenol and flavonoid content in all planting times and the tannin content was increased as the planting date was delayed. So the sorghum grown in late planting dates (July 5) had highest polyphenol content (2.07 gGAE/100g) at early harvesting (35 days) while late planting gave the low grain yield (1.3 ton/ha). Polyphenol index to average temperature during 35 and 45 days after heading of ‘Donganme’ showed that total polyphenol contents were decreased by 5.2% and 4.4%, respectively, with increasing average temperature of 1oC. And high correlation (R=0.85) was observed between accumulated temperature and the amount of polyphenol of ‘Donganme’, confirming the major contribution of the quality traits is temperature. To produce high quality grain from sorghum the relation between the yield and nutrition components must be considered simultaneously (i.e., Sorghum produced the highest polyphenol and flavonoid when planted in June 15 and harvested at 40 to 45 days after head shooting .
In the past years, few grain sorghum varieties with limited yield potential have been developed and grown in Korea. Hybrids tend to be more productive and resistive to unfavorable environmental conditions than pure line varieties. However, no hybrid cultivars are available and never have been planted for grain sorghum in Korea. The main aims of this study were to (i) verify if US x Korean and US x US hybrids increase grain yield in Korea; (ii) assess the performance of waxy hybrids in Korea and the US; (iii) estimate general combining ability and specific combining ability for the lines studied; and (iv) identify superior lines and hybrids for future use in breeding. Two distinct sets of waxy-endosperm sorghum hybrids derived from Korean landraces and US lines (Texas A&M University) were tested in the US and Korea. Compared to the parental lines, hybrids derived from US lines and Korean landraces showed yield increase that ranged from 2% to 127%. Hybrids created from US lines showed higher heterosis than US x Korean hybrids. Hybrid vigor was observed in the US and Korea, but shifts in ranks of hybrid performance occurred. The results indicate that it is feasible to develop grain sorghum hybrids adapted to Korean conditions only if delibrate selections take place in Korea. A combination of Korean and US sources could provide an acceptable germplasm base for developing Korean landrace based sorghum hybrids.
This study was conducted in order to investigate the antioxidant capabilities and quality characteristics of instant porridge made of foxtail millet (Setaria italica Beauv.) from different varieties with different endosperm characteristics and processing using different methods. The two foxtail millet varieties used in this study were waxy foxtail millet, ‘Samdachal’, and non-waxy foxtail millet, ‘Samdame’. The means of processing food to create instant porridge were dry cereal frying, wet cereal frying, freeze drying after steaming, popping, and no treatment. The WAI (water absorption index) of instant porridge made of waxy foxtail millet was higher than that of non-waxy foxtail millet, and popping created the highest WAI among the treatments tested. Whean we analyzed RVA characteristics of non-waxy foxtail millet instant porridge, peak viscosity and setback values were decreased in all processed foxtail millet instant porridge compared to non-waxy foxtail millet instant porridge. In waxy foxtail instant porridge, the peak and final viscosities of processed treated instant porridge increased. The viscosity just after pouring hot water into the instant porridge was higher in waxy foxtail millet porridge treated by freeze drying after steaming, popping, and wet cereal frying; the viscosity of non-waxy foxtail porridge was increased after popping as compared with the other treatments. The polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities were increased in all processed, treated-instant porridge except for freeze dried porridge after steamingnt. The popping treatment showed the highest polyphenol contents (1.5 fold), and ABTS antioxidant activity (1.2 fold), compared to no treatment. Non-waxy foxtail millet porridge produced by popping earned the highest sensory evaluation scores.
Two sorghum(Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cv. Hwanggeumchal-susu and Miryang 3) samples were milled using different milling methods, and their physicochemical properties were tested. Particle size was classified into five groups such as pin mill and low temperature-microparticulation(LTM; 10, 000, 20, 000, 30, 000, and 40, 000 rpm). The water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index(WSI), and a rapid Visco analyzer(RVA) were used to examine particle size distribution and color differences. Particle size of sorghum flour prepared using LTM was lower than that prepared using a pin mill. Particle size was further reduced by successive dry milling of the LTM flour. Lightness of colored pigments increased when particle size decreased. The WAI of Miryang 3 pin milling(M1) flour was the lowest after LTM, and WSI was higher in the order of M2, M3, M4, and M5. LTM sorghum flour had significantly higher pasting viscosity, as determined using a rapid Visco analyzer. LTM Miryang 3 sorghum flour(M2～M5) flour showed lower breakdown viscosity and higher final viscosity compared to those of M1 flour, resulting in an increased setback value.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the appearance, sensory and physicochemical characteristics of muffin added glutinous(GSP) and non-glutinous sorghum powder(NGSP). As increasing the amounts of sorghum powder, proximate (moisture, ash and protein) and minerals composition(K, Ca, Mg and Na) of muffin were significant difference. The weight, volume, height, lightness(L-value) and yellowness(b-value) were decreased as increasing the amounts of sorghum powder. In the results of sensory evaluation, appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall quality of untreated muffin were 1.4, 1.6, 1.4, 1.0, 1.1 and 0.9, and muffin added 10% GSP and NGSP were scored relatively high. Antioxidant compounds contents of muffin added sorghum powder were increased as increasing the amounts of sorghum powder. DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities on methanolic extracts of untreated muffin were 0.74 and 1.31 ㎎ TE/g ER, respectively. DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities of 100% GSP muffin were 9.40 and 19.14 ㎎ TE/g ER, and 100% NGSP muffin were 10.59 and 18.78 ㎎ TE/g ER, respectively. The results of this study show that notable antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity on muffin added sorghum powder are considered to have significant health benefits.
‘Daname’ is a foxtail millet(Setaria italica Beauv.) variety developed and registered by Department of Southern Area Crop Science, NICS, RDA in 2014. This variety which collected from IT252182 was developed through pure line selection. ‘Daname’ is a early-maturing variety having 100 days of growth period from seeding to harvesting in Milyang of Korea. The culm length is about 97 cm which is 20cm shorter culm length than standard variety ‘Hwanggeumjo’, and it showed tolerant to lodging in field. The panicle shape is a cylindrical and the length is about 19cm. According to the grain, seed color and dehusked grain colors are orange and yellow and endosperm characteristic is non-glutinous. The yield performance of this variety was about 3.81 t ha-1 in local adaptability test from 2013 to 2014 and it showed similar with standard variety ‘Hwanggeumjo’. As the addition amount of ‘Daname’ in rice increased from 0% to 30% and 100%, the antioxidant ability of ‘Daname’ added rice and hardness/stickiness balances were increased. But we could not find out the difference of hardness/stickiness balances between 0%and 10% addition. So, 10% addition amount was concluded to increase antioxidant ability regardless eating quality of cooked rice. (Variety registration No. 6243)
A new small red bean cultivar, ‘Geomguseul’, was artificially crossed between ‘Chilbo’ and ‘SA8412-3-1-4-3-3-2-3’ in 1998, fixed excellent agronomic characters by pedigree breeding method, and selected for the further trials with the name of ‘Miryang 10’. It was prominent and showed good result, such as high grain quality, lodging resistance, and high-antioxidant activity in the regional adaptation yield trials (RYT) for three years from 2009 to 2011 and released for the public consumption as the name of ‘SA9801-24-4-3-1’ in 2011. ‘Geomguseul’ has a semi-determinate growth habit, yellow flower, green embryonic axis, black seed coat, white hilum, and small spherical seed (12.2 grams per 100 seeds). The average yield of ‘Geomguseul’ was 2.01 MT/ha in the regional yield trials (RYT) carried out for three years from 2009 to 2011 which was a little higher than that (1.98 MT/ha) of the check variety, ‘Chungju’.
A new colored soybean variety ‘Jungmo3005’ was developed as a breeding parent. ‘Cheongjakong’ and ‘Geomjeongkong3’ were crossed in 2000. F1 and F2 populations were grown for 2 years and selected by pedigree method from F3 to F5. The preliminary yield trial (PYT) and advanced yield trial (AYT) were conducted from 2006 to 2007, and regional yield trial (RYT) in 9 regions was conducted from 2008 to 2010. ‘Jungmo3005’ is determinate, white flower, green cotyledon, green spherical seed and yellow hilum. Flowering date and maturing date were July 30 and Oct. 7, respectively. Other quantitative characteristics of ‘Jungmo3005’ were similar to ‘Cheongdu1’, but it was more tolerant to lodging and shattering than ‘Cheongdu1’ at RYT field and indoor test. Although ‘Jungmo3005’ showed symptom of mosaic disease in inoculation test at greenhouse, it had high level of resistance to soybean mosaic virus and bacterial pustule diseases at field. The yield of tofu of ‘Jungmo3005’ was more than that of ‘Cheongdu1’. The mean yield of ‘Jungmo3005’ in RYT was 256kg/10a which was 97% of the yield of ‘Cheongdu1’. ‘Jungmo3005’ is expected to be widely used as a breeding parent to cross with other varieties and lines for creating colored soybean cultivars with tolerance to lodging, shattering and bacterial pustule.
Background : This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant activities and anticancer effect in 80% ethanol extract from foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties. Methods and Results : These extracts were evaluated for contents of total polyphenol and antioxidant activities using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. In concentration of 1000 ㎍/㎖, total polyphenol contents of foxtail millet, proso millet and sorghum were 7.68 - 12.74 ㎍․GAE/㎖, 13.01 - 14.79 ㎍․GAE/㎖ and 48.24 - 62.33 ㎍․GAE/㎖, respectively. Sorghum extracts showed strong radical scavenging activity comparable to well-known antioxidant, trolox. Anticancer effect was evaluated for MTT assay using AGS human gastric cancer cells. All extracts decreased growth of AGS cancer cells. Foxtail millet extracts were decreased about 40% of cell viability in all concentrations. Sorghum extracts were decreased cell viability, concentration dependent manner. Especially, Donganme extract (one of the sorghum variety) was the highest anti cancer effect under AGS cancer cells. Conclusion : Based on these results, millet and sorghum has potential health promoting bioactive compounds as functional food.
The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) variety ‘Sodamchal’ was developed and registered by Department of Sothern Area Crop Science, National Institute of Crop Science (NICS) in 2013. This variety was developed from the cross between ‘Hwanggeumchal’ with brown grain and ’Jungmo4001’ with semi-dwarf trait. ‘Sodamchal’ is the first semi-dwarf stature with waxy endosperm ever developed in Korea. The yield performance of ‘Sodamchal’ was 2.95 MT/ha in local adaptability test for 2 years. It had 91 cm culm length, which was 58 cm shorter than that of ‘Hwanggeumchal’, 26.3 cm panicle length, 22.0 mm thickness of culm, 21.1 g in 1,000 grain weight. It could be reduce the lodging problem and also adapted to mechanized cultivation. ‘Sodamchal’ produces high quantities of polyphenol and radical scavenging activitiy with diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) in pigmented testa. Above all ‘Sodamchal’ is suitable for use as a parental source for the development of improved pollinator parent lines for developing semi-dwarf sorghum with waxy endosperm and antioxidant activity. (Variety registration No. 6244)
A new small red bean cultivar, ‘Arari’, was artificially crossed between ‘SA9411-2B-1-1-2’ and ‘Suweon38’ in 1997, fixed excellent agronomic characters by pedigree breeding method, and selected for the further trials with the name of 'Milyang 8'. It was prominent and showed good result, such as high grain quality, Lodging resistance, and high yielding, from the regional adaptation yield trials (RYT) for three years from 2009 to 2011 and released for the public consumption as the name of ‘Arari’in 2011. ‘Arari’ has a semi-determinate growth habit, yellow flower, green embryonic axis, dark red seed coat, white hilum, and small spherical seed (13.1 grams per 100 seeds). The average yield of ‘Arari’ was 2.05 MT/ha in the regional yield trials (RYT) carried out for three years from 2009 to 2011 which was a little higher than that (1.99 MT/ha) of check variety, ‘Chungju’.
‘Nampungchal’ is a Sorghum bicolor L. developed and registered by Department of Sothern area crop science, NICS, RDA in 2012. This variety was developed through pure line breeding method from ‘Namhae’ landrace. ‘Nampungchal’ is a medium maturing variety having 68 days from planting to heading of sorghum in Miryang, Korea. The plant is pigmented (purple), the glumes and grains are red-brown with waxy endosperm. The panicle has less compact shape and the length is 23 cm. The grain yield of ‘Nampungchal’ is about 2.28MT/ha that is higher 9%, when compared with standard variety ‘Hwanggeumchal’. Culm length and width are about 142 cm and 20.2 cm, respectively. It could be reduce the lodging problem by thicker stems and also adapted to mechanized cultivation. ‘Nampungchal’ does produce high quantities of polyphenol and tannin contents with DPPH radical scavenging activity in pigmented testa. The object of this breeding program is improvement for mechanized production with high yield potential, lodging resistant, and responsive to favorable environmental conditions.