This study investigated the nutritional characteristics of before and after fermentation of domestic soybean (Glycine max L.) by Rhizopus oligosporus. The soybean storage proteins, β-conglycinin (11S globulin) and glycinin (7S globulin), were the most abundant in Seonyu (SY) and Danbaegkong (DBK), with concentrations of 253.4 mg/g and 193.0 mg/g, respectively. For 11S/7S related to sulfur-containing amino acid, DBK had a value of 0.95, making it the most excellent nutritionally among all the cultivars. The free amino acid content significantly increased from 0.04~10.45 mg/g before fermentation to 1.37~16.95 mg/g after fermentation, and the essential amino acid composition increased, confirming an improvement in protein quality after fermentation. Phytic acid, known as a nutritional inhibitor of soybeans, decreased from 1.66~2.13 g/100 g before fermentation to 0.90~1.58 g/100 g after fermentation, suggesting that mineral absorption inhibition was alleviated. In addition, the trypsin inhibitor content is suppressed by 76.20% to 81.25% after fermentation, which is expected to improve protein utilization in the body. This study confirmed some properties of fermented products by Rhizopus oligosporus using domestic soybeans, and these results are presented to serve as the basic data for establishing new uses of Korean soybean cultivars.
Vulnerable populations in healthcare facilities are more sensitive to exposure to indoor air pollutants, and therefore are more affected by such pollutants than the general population. This was the underlying reason why studies of indoor air pollutant concentration distribution and health risk assessment have been conducted targeting facilities, such as daycare centers, medical facilities, elderly care facilities, and postnatal care centers. However, previous studies have mainly focused on daycare and medical facilities for their research, and relatively speaking, studies conducted on the other venues are lacking. Therefore, this study aims to present the current status of indoor air quality and perform a health risk assessment in regard to Formaldehyde exposure at postnatal care centers and elderly care facilities. Here, the study focused on facilities that had undergone pollution level inspections from January 2017 to December 2021. A total of 81 postnatal care centers and 48 elderly care facilities were selected as the subject of the study. Then, the study utilized concentrations of five elements (CO2, HCHO, PM10, PM2.5, TBC) to determine the status of indoor air quality of both postnatal care centers and elderly care facilities. For health risk assessment, HCHO concentration was used. The investigation demonstrated that the yearly average concentration of the five elements stood within the indoor air quality maintenance standards, and the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 in the two types of facilities was distributed as high as about 70%. In addition, the study showed that HCHO and TBC demonstrated a positive correlation when the relationship between indoor temperature and humidity with the five elements was examined. The health risk assessment showed that the cancer risk level of postnatal care center users stood below 10-6, below the level that is perceived as an acceptable risk. The cancer risk of workers from both postnatal care centers and elderly care facilities and elderly care facility users exceeded the acceptable risk level of 10-6, but was shown to be below 10-4, the maximum acceptable risk.
The restraints are used in the intensive care unit as a way to restrict the movement of the whole body or part of the body for the safety of the patient, such as maintaining medical equipment, preventing falls and patient self tube removal through regulating the patient's behavior. However, the physical restraints are used for the physical safety of the patient, but that is cause a variety of physical and psychological complications. Thus, nurses in intensive care units who apply restraint on face an ethical dilemma in the confrontation between the nurse's duty to improve the patient's health and protect the patient's safety and the value of the patient's autonomy and dignity. We have two examples are proposed to identify the ethical dilemma situation faced by nurses, to induce an active attitude towards elimination by establishing exactly restraint - removal criteria. In addition, it is proposed to seek a balance of individual values through active communication between the patient and the medical staff regarding the application of the restraint.
With the enforcement of the “Act on decisions on life-sustaining treatment for patients at the end of life” in February 2018, discussion on advanced care planning (ACP) has increased. However, as decisions on life-sustaining treatments are still made in the intensive care unit, deaths related to the suspension of life-sustaining treatment account for a large proportion of deaths in the intensive care unit. The nurses encounter challenges in supporting the patient's dignified death; they experience an ethical dilemma in the ambiguity due to a lack of guidance on legal responsibilities regarding decisions on life-sustaining treatment. In order for the nurses to perform as a supporter providing care to the patients and as a advocate during the process of decision-making on life-sustaining treatment, there should be a systemic change to ensure the nurses' participation. In addition, an open and continuous discussion should be proposed to cultivate nurses’ ethical sensitivity and moral courage. This paper reports two ethical examples related to the decisions on life-sustaining treatment occurred in intensive care units of a tertiary hospital.
This study was conducted to define the concept of social stigma related to COVID-19 and to identify attributes of nurses with experience in nursing COVID-19 confirmed patients. The study analysis method used the hybrid model of Schwartz-Barcott and Kim, and data was collected from literature related to social stigma and 7 nurses who had experience caring for confirmed COVID-19 patients. As a result of this study, the social stigma related to COVID-19 of nurses who have experience nursing confirmed patients was derived into three attributes. The three areas were derived from undervaluation, discrimination, and negative stereotypes. As a result, social rejection, social isolation, and lack of social support were found. As a primary result, cognitive response to inequality, emotional response to increased stress, increased anxiety, disappointment, alienation, and avoidance appeared. As a secondary result, negative self-concept, destruction of self-integration, self-stigmatization, and job satisfaction were shown. As a result, this study is meaningful in that it provided a practical foundation for a strategy to reduce social stigma related to COVID-19 of nurses who have cared for COVID-19 confirmed patients.
Saengcheonggukjang, known as Natto in Japan, is a soybean fermented food which is made from steamed soybean, Bacillus and water. Demand of Saengcheonggukjang has increased because it does not have much smell compared to Cheonggukjang. Seven varieties of Saengcheonggukjang were investigated and compared in terms of 100 seed weight, quality characteristics, hard seed rate, and water absorption rate in order to determine the suitability of Korean soybeans. In addition, each characteristic of Saengcheonggukjang was compared. ‘Hoseo’ and ‘Haewon’ showed low 100 seed weight with 8.41 g and 8.11 g, respectively. The water absorption rate was higher in ‘Hoseo’ and ‘Pungwon’ than in Japan varieties. The yield of Saengcheonggukjang was significantly different for each variety. No differences were observed in yield and hardness of Saengcheonggukjang with respect to the varieties and sowing date. ‘Haewon’ showed the highest amino nitrogen content with 575.0 mg%. Viscous material content did not appear to differ between varieties. These results suggested that ‘Hoseo’ and ‘Haewon’ can be considered as suitable candidates for yield and quality of Saengcheonggukjang compared to Japan varieties.
This experiment was performed to analyze the annual variation of growth traits of soybean to determine the information of less sensitive traits and stable cultivars based on the environmental conditions. Sowing was carried out on June 2 for each year and the test plot was arranged in three replicates by randomized complete block design with thirty soybean varieties including two landraces during the period 2014-2015. The weather conditions during the test period were quite different with extremely low precipitation and longer sunshine duration in 2015. The variation of characteristics related to growth period such as days of growth, days of maturity, days of flowering and 100-seed weight were less in spite of different environmental conditions. While the variation of the number of pods per plant was high. Considering growth and seed characteristics like the number of pods per plant, the number of seeds per pod, and 100-seed weight which are linked directly to the yield, cultivars such as Shingi, Daewonkong, Danbaegkong, and Daepung for beancurd and soypaste, Pungwon, Haepum and Shingang for soy-sprout and Seoritae for cooking with rice were more stable and are expected to have high yield in Suwon, the south-central part of South Korea. These results are useful for the selection of breeding resources to develop cultivars with high stability under changeable weather condition.
With the increasing popularity of nonprofit thrift shopping, new marketing strategies are needed to respond to accelerated competition in the secondhand market. To help guide the development of marketing strategies for nonprofit thrift stores, this study aims to identify factors impacting consumers’ buying behavior for secondhand fashion items sold in nonprofit thrift stores. Specifically, this study investigated 1) the effects of secondhand fashion selection criteria (i.e., design, brand name, lower price) and personal factors (i.e., gender, household income, beliefs about environment) on the secondhand fashion consumption experience in nonprofit thrift stores and 2) the moderating effects of point of purchase (POP) messages (i.e., “50% Off Sale,” “New Arrivals,” “Helping Others”) on the relationships between purchase intention and impulsive buying in nonprofit thrift stores. An online survey was used to collect the data, and a total of 197 usable responses were received. The results showed that 1) gender, household income, beliefs about environment, and brand name affected the secondhand fashion consumption experience and 2) the POP message “Helping Others” negatively moderated the relationship between purchase intention and impulsive buying in nonprofit thrift stores. These results can help nonprofit thrift stores’ managers to develop effective marketing strategies to increase their profits, which can be used to accomplish their mission of addressing social issues.
동남아시아 주요 옥수수 생산국인 인도네시아의 옥수수 생 산과 생산성 제한 요인에 대하여 조사·분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 인도네시아는 북위 5°에서 남위 10°사이에 위치하여 연 중 열대성 기후를 보이며 건기와 우기의 구별이 뚜렷하다. 2. 옥수수 재배면적은 약 4,000천ha 정도이며 생산량은 2009년 이후로 17,000천톤 이상을 유지하고 있다. 그 가운데 수확면적과 생산량의 약 50%를 Jawa섬이 차지하고 있다. 2014년 단위 면적당 생산성은 4.95ton/ha로 1980년대에 비하 여 약 3배 증가하였으나 지역적으로는 2.5 ~ 7.32ton/ha의 변이 를 보여 지역 간 차이가 심하다. 3. 생물적 생산성 제한요인은 downy mildew (Peronosclerospora), maydis leaf blights (Helminthosporium spp.), leaf spots (Curvularia spp.), rusts (Puccinia polysora), stalk and ear rots (Fusarium spp., Diplodia spp.), banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB, Rhizoctonia solani) 등의 병과 바 구미(Sitophilus spp.), shoot flies (Atherigona spp.), Asian corn borers (Ostrinia furnacalis), 멸강충(Mythimna spp.), corn ear worm (Helicoverpa spp.) 등의 충이나, 가장 큰 영 향을 주는 요인은 downy mildew이다. 4. 비생물적 생산성 제한요인은 토양의 산성화에 따른 척박 토양과 관개가 자유롭지 못한 전작 지대의 한발피해 등이며, 경제·사회적 제한요인으로는 비료, 농약 등 농자재 투입 비용 과 hybrid종자 가격 등이다. 5. 인도네시아에 적응하는 품종 개발 시 생산성 제한 요인을 극복하기 위한 주요 타겟 형질은 환경 스트레스 내성으로서, 특 히 downy mildew 저항성과 내산성, 내건성이 요구된다.
유색옥수수 종실의 호분층을 첨가하여 제조된 안토시아닌이 함유된 유색두부를 개발하여 농가소득 증진을 위한 기술로 활 용하고자 수행한 결과는 다음과 같았다. 호분층 분말의 크기 와 상관없이 유색옥수수 호분층 분말의 첨가량이 증가할수록 만들어지는 두부 무게량은 증가하였다. 유색옥수수 호분층 분 말을 첨가한 두부는 100% 콩을 이용한 두부보다 일반적으로 경도가 높았다. 안토시아닌 함량 분석 결과 분말첨가량이 증 가할수록 유색두부에 포함된 안토시아닌이 증가하였다. 항산 화 활성 측정 결과에서 유색 옥수수 종실의 호분층 분말 첨가 와 항산화 활성이 옥수수 종실의 호분층 분말의 농도 의존적 으로 높아졌다. 기능성성분인 안토시아닌 등을 함유한 유색옥 수수 종실의 호분층를 이용하여 흰색두부에 보라색을 첨가하 여 시각적 효과와 기능성 등을 향상 시킬 수 있다. 더불어 국 민 소비가 많은 두부에 옥수수를 첨가하여, 점차 고급화 되어 가고 있는 소비자의 기호도에 부응할 수 있는 고품질두부 생 산에 본 연구결과가 큰 기여를 할 것으로 추정된다.
미이라병은 Diaporthe/Phomopsis complex에 의해 유발되는병으로 콩 재배기간 중 따뜻하고 습한 환경에서 종자가 성숙되면 감염률이 높아지며 감염된 콩 종자는 외관상 품질뿐만아니라 종자 활력이 저하된다. 미이라병에 대한 연구를 수행하기 위하여 대만에 위치한 아시아채소개발연구센터(AVRDC)의 콩 시험포장에서 미이라병 병징을 보이는 콩 줄기를 채집하고 이로부터 3개의 곰팡이 균주(isolate)를 분리하였다. 배지위에서의 곰팡이 균사의 생육특성, 현미경하에서 관찰된 알파,베타 분생자(conidia)의 모양 그리고 PCR-RFLP 분석으로, 3개의 균주는 Diaporthe phaseolorum var. sojae 으로 확인되었다. 한편, 미이라병 저항성 육종을 위해서는 유전자원과 계통의 검정이 선행되어야 하는데, 인공접종을 위해서 분생자의최적 배양조건을 탐색하였다. 그 결과 배지는 PDA, 온도는24oC에서 잘 배양되었으며, 일장은 암조건에서는 균사체만 유도되고 분생자는 유도되지 않았으며, 24시간과 15시간의 일장에서는 균사체 유도 및 분생자의 유도 정도에 차이가 없었다.또한 잎-줄기와 꼬투리, 두 개의 접종 부위에 따른 미이라병감염률을 조사하였는데, 두 접종 부위에 따른 미이라병 감염정도는 통계적인 유의차는 나타나지 않았으나 잎-줄기에 접종한 개체 보다 꼬투리에 접종한 개체의 종자 감염률이 높은 경향을 보였다.
본 연구는 밥밑용 검정콩의 식미에 관련된 선발 지표를 탐색하고자 품종과 재래종을 이용하여 이화학적 특성을 분석하고 비교하였다. 검정콩 종실의 길이는 7.73 ~ 9.99 mm, 너비는 7.13 ~ 8.50 mm, 그리고 두께는 5.06 ~ 7.03 mm의 범위였다. 밥밑용 검정콩 품종과 재래종 종실의 색도를 측정한 결과 명도는 14.48 ~ 19.98, 적색도는 –0.22 ~ 0.09, 황색도는 –0.57 ~ 1.05 범위였다. 밥밑용 검정콩의 조단백 함량은 32.2 ~ 36.9%, 조지방 함량은 11.7 ~ 18.6%, 조섬유 함량은 3.99 ~ 4.50%, 조회분 함량은 4.98 ~ 5.95% 범위였다. 관능평가 결과 종합적 기호도에서 가장 좋은 평가를 받은 것은 청자콩이었고 가장 낮은 것은 IT177445이었다. IT177445는 단맛이 가장 약하였는데, 비린맛은 많이 강하고 고소한 맛은 약해 종합적 기호도에서 가장 낮은 평가를 받았다. 본 연구에서 이용한 자원의 종실 길이, 너비 및 두께는 종합적 기호도와 정의 상관을 나타내었고, 조섬유 함량과는 부의 상관을 나타내었다. 종합적 기호도는 조단백 함량(−0.54*) 및 조섬유 함량(−0.73**)과는 부의 상관을 보였다. 외관적 기호도를 제외한 씹힘성(0.73**), 단맛(0.82***), 비린맛(0.86***) 그리고 고소한맛(0.89***)은 종합적 기호도에 유의한 정의 상관을 나타내었으나, 단맛(−0.54*), 비린맛(−0.55*) 그리고 고소한맛(−0.80***)은 조섬유 함량과 유의한 부의 상관을 나타내었다.
지구온난화와 화석연료의 고갈이라는 심각한 위기 속에 세계 모든 나라들이 탄소배출 감소와 대체에너지 확보방안 마련에 노력하고 있다. 스웨덴은 자연자원 특히 산림자원을 이용한 바이오에너지 생산에 모범을 보이는 나라이다. 해외에너지의존도가 과거 70%가 넘는 수준에서 30% 미만으로 낮출 수있었던 그들의 성공요인을 분석하여 국내 바이오에너지 산업화 활용자료로 이용하고자 한다.
1. 스웨덴의 바이오에너지 정책은 1997년 처음 입안되어 대폭적인 예산지원과 바이오에너지 지원체제가 구축되었다. 전기인증제, 세금면제, 특별자금지원(연구개발 및 산업화) 등 다양한 형태로 건강과 환경, 기후에 미치는 영향은 최소화하면서 저비용으로 에너지를 생산하고 효율적으로 소비하는 정책을 성공적으로 만들어냈다.
2. 바이오에너지 개발을 위해 스웨덴은 면세, 세금부과 등의방법을 적절히 부과하였는데 기존의 에너지 자원에 대한 세금부과, 바이오매스, 풍력, 수력발전으로부터 생산되는 에너지에대한 면세 또는 보조금 지급 등 다양한 혜택을 주고 있다.
3. 스웨덴은 국가 전체적으로 막대한 산림을 이용해 생산된바이오매스를 화력발전시스템으로 전기, 난방 등의 에너지를만들어 공급하는 저비용 고효율 시스템이 잘 정착되어있다. ENKöPING이라는 회사의 우드칩(woodchips, sawdust(톱밥), willow(버드나무), bark)을 이용한 난방과 전기 생산으로 인구 2~3만의 조그만 시의 에너지 자립도를 이룬 지역난방 모범사례가 된다.
4. 스웨덴의 대학, 연구소에서는 버드나무류로 대표되는 관목의 우수품종 개발, 파종, 수확, 잡초방제 등에 대한 재배기술이 개발하여 자연자원뿐만 아니라 바이오매스의 농업적 생산에도 성과를 보이고 있으며 여기서 생산된 단기순환 관목의 용도를 다양화하여 수익 창출에도 연구노력을 하고 있다.
Purposes of this research were to examine characteristics of contractors and the relationship between contractors and wholesalers of apparel products. Influence of such variables on wholesalers’ satisfaction was also assessed. Location, reputation and service were factors of contractor characteristics. Dependence, cooperation and power were three factors that were considered for contractor-wholesaler relationship variable. Survey data from 109 wholesalers located in Dongdaemun Fashion Town in Korea was used for analysis. Empirical results confirmed the importance of service factor of contractor characteristics. Service and location of the contractor had positive influence on cooperation. Location had negative influence on power. Reputation had positive direct influence on wholesaler satisfaction. Cooperation between contractors and wholesalers had significant influence on wholesaler satisfaction.
The current research focused on exploration of a well known Korean fashion and clothing industry cluster, Dongdaemun Fashion Town(DFT). Many clothing and fashion wholesalers in DFT with various business formats are trying to obtain competitive advantages. For the empirical study, a questionnaire was developed. Items measuring descriptive statistics for each business and contractor selection criteria were included in the survey. 161 data from Employees of various wholesalers of DFT were used for statistical analysis. Majority of DFT customers were buyers of Internet shopping malls and street retail shops. 64% of them used domestic contractors for sourcing products. Most of them managed less than three contractors. Contractor selection criteria were factorized as flexibility, production ability, stability, fame and location. Wholesalers were segmented into three groups: product oriented, flexibility oriented and stability oriented groups. Group differences in terms of business practices were assessed and strategic implications were included.
The ammonia in ambient were sampled by high efficiency diffusion scrubber (HEDS) and analyzed by IC. Ammonia showed high linearity (R²＞0.999) of the calibration curve and good repeatability (RSD＜5%). The detection limit of Ammonia was about 0.05 ppbv. Average concentration of Ammonia was 12.7 ppbv, Instantaneous maximum concentration was 83.4 ppbv. Continuous sampling method is proper to monitor ammonia which is the odor material instantaneously increased mainly affected by meteorological condition. The sampling and analysis process can be automated and performed in real-time by continuous sampling of HEDS-IC system.
Purpose: The research was to investigate the effect of line dance programs on oxygen saturation level and happiness of elderlies. Methods: Researchers had conducted a series of test to measure peripheral blood vessel oxygen saturation level, pulse and happiness level of 47 elderlies from the D district of G city. Collected data were analyzed with -test and independent t-test, equipped with SPSS WIN 17.0. Results: As a result of serial tests, Pre-test and Post-test of line dance performance showed that oxygen saturation of the Experimental group had significant increase following the program and happiness of the Experimental group also had significant increase following the program. Conclusion: In conclusion, with many advantages such as its easiness to access and emulate as well as its ubiquitousness as an aerobic exercise, line dance cannot only be very beneficial to cardiovascular function and relation of elderlies, but also to emotional and psychological effect, considered as a great breakthrough to improve comprehensive well-being in both physical and mental aspects.