Vulnerable populations in healthcare facilities are more sensitive to exposure to indoor air pollutants, and therefore are more affected by such pollutants than the general population. This was the underlying reason why studies of indoor air pollutant concentration distribution and health risk assessment have been conducted targeting facilities, such as daycare centers, medical facilities, elderly care facilities, and postnatal care centers. However, previous studies have mainly focused on daycare and medical facilities for their research, and relatively speaking, studies conducted on the other venues are lacking. Therefore, this study aims to present the current status of indoor air quality and perform a health risk assessment in regard to Formaldehyde exposure at postnatal care centers and elderly care facilities. Here, the study focused on facilities that had undergone pollution level inspections from January 2017 to December 2021. A total of 81 postnatal care centers and 48 elderly care facilities were selected as the subject of the study. Then, the study utilized concentrations of five elements (CO2, HCHO, PM10, PM2.5, TBC) to determine the status of indoor air quality of both postnatal care centers and elderly care facilities. For health risk assessment, HCHO concentration was used. The investigation demonstrated that the yearly average concentration of the five elements stood within the indoor air quality maintenance standards, and the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 in the two types of facilities was distributed as high as about 70%. In addition, the study showed that HCHO and TBC demonstrated a positive correlation when the relationship between indoor temperature and humidity with the five elements was examined. The health risk assessment showed that the cancer risk level of postnatal care center users stood below 10-6, below the level that is perceived as an acceptable risk. The cancer risk of workers from both postnatal care centers and elderly care facilities and elderly care facility users exceeded the acceptable risk level of 10-6, but was shown to be below 10-4, the maximum acceptable risk.
This study sought to conduct a fundamental investigation in order to test and evaluate the thermal performance of an aluminum stick curtain wall system. In terms of the thermal performance index, the infiltration rate of air tightness, thermal transmittance of the heat insulation property and temperature difference ratio of condensation resistance were experimentally measured. The research process can be divided into three parts. First of all, a database for the test report of the curtain wall was compiled and existing design criteria with respect to the evaluation method and standard of transparent building components such as curtain wall, window and door were analyzed to produce the specimens. Secondly, four different types of curtain wall specimens were created through investigating the curtain wall database. Thirdly, standard tests of thermal performance were carried out for airtightness, thermal performance and condensation resistance. As a result, the curtain wall specimens with low-e triple glazing covered by an aluminum capture system showed high thermal performance compared to other curtain wall specimens including low-e triple glazing with a 4-sided structural sealant glazing system. Air tightness of all types of curtain wall specimens satisfied level 1 standard for air tightness. It was found that a curtain wall which consists of a one track frame has difficulties meeting the residential standard of thermal performance with regard to thermal transmittance and condensation resistance.
This study investigated 180 students’ indoor environmental awareness of rest spaces and measured the indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM10, TVOCs, and HCHO in 8 rest spaces from October 2019. 89.4% of the students responded that they use rest spaces at least once a day and most of the respondents are using rest spaces in the university. The largest number of students responded to the tight space as the main cause of air pollution in rest spaces. 62.1% of the students answered they experienced health symptoms from using rest spaces. Among them, 32.5% said they experienced irritation symptoms of eyes, neck, nose, and 12.1% answered that they experienced headaches. Indoor PM10, TVOCs, and HCHO levels did not exceed indoor air quality recommendations nor the maintenance standard for multi-use facilities. Indoor PM10, TVOCs, and HCHO levels did not exceed indoor air quality recommendations nor the maintenance standard for multi-use facilities. According to the type of rest space, concentrations of PM10, TVOCs, and HCHO were higher among the closed-type than open-type rest space. Even if the concentration of pollutants is less than the environmental standard, continuous exposure may cause negative health effects. In addition, considering that 62.1% of the respondents experienced health symptoms, it is deemed necessary to take measures to manage indoor environments in rest spaces and to develop measures to reduce pollutants.
This study was performed to investigate the characteristics of VOCs and carbonyl compounds emitted by smallscale master, offset, and screen printing facilities. During the printing process, concentration measurements of indoor samples were made at each on the printer equipment and the indoor center of the facility. In each case, the window or door served as natural ventilation, and concentration measurements of outdoor samples were made at each air exit point. The results showed that in all printing facilities, the levels of VOCs and carbonyl compounds were much higher in printer equipment compared to indoor levels. Comparative examination of VOCs between printer equipment and the indoors of the facility, the main species of master and offset printer equipment were Methyl isocyanide, 2,2,6-Trimethyloctane, 2,2-Dimethyldecane, 3,7-Dimethyldecane, Toluene, Acetonitrile, and 3- Methoxy-3-methylbutanol. The main species of the indoors of master and offset facilities were Toluene, 2,2,6- Trimethyl-octane, Isopropyl alcohol, 3-Methoxy–3- methylbutanol, Nonane, and Acetone. However, in the screen printing facility, the printer and indoor emission compounds were the same such as 2-Methyl-cyclopentanone, Cyclohexanone, Ethylbenzene, and p-Xylene. Among the compounds released to the outside, Toluene and Acetone were the most abundant species of VOCs and carbonyl compounds, respectively.
Indoor air environments for people are recently being observed because the time we spend inside the house or a building throughout the day has been extended during the present circumstances. This is why formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated, which can cause Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). There might be other VOCs not regulated by law in newly built collective housing, however, in order to compensate for the reduced concentration of regulated VOCs such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene. In this study, the concentration of unregulated VOCs in newly built collective housing structures located in the Seoul Special City was researched to find potential indoor hazards for citizens and to prepare basic data for further research.
The goal of this study was to measure the indoor and outdoor fine and ultrafine particulate matter concentrations (PM10, PM1.0) of some houses in Yeosu and in S university in Asan from March to September 2018. PM10 concentration in indoor air in Yeosu area was 18.25 μg/m3, while for outdoor air it was 14.53 μg/m3. PM1.0 concentration in indoor air in the Asan area was 1.70 μg/m3, while for outdoor air it was 1.76 μg/m3, showing a similar trend. Heavy metal concentrations in the Yeosu region were the highest, at Mn 2.81 μg/m3, Cr 1.30 μg/ m3, and Ni 1.11 μg/m3 indoors. Outside, similar concentrations were found, at Cr 3.44 μg/m3, Mn, 2.60 μg/m3, and Ni 1.71 μg/m3. Our analysis of indoor and outdoor PM concentrations in the Asan region, which was carried out using the MOUDI (Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) technique, found that PM concentration is related to each particle size concentration, as the concentration of 18 μm and 18-10 μm inside tends to increase by 3.2- 1.8 μm and 0.56-0.32 μm.
In this study, we analyzed the concentration of cadmium and mercury in urine and lead in blood from 668 residents in the exposed and compared areas in Gwangyang-si and Yeosu-si, from July 2013 to December 2015. According to the lifestyle (past smoking, current smoking, passive smoking, drinking and exercise), the concentration of cadmium in urine was higher in the compared areas than in the exposed areas in Gwangyang. However, the concentration of cadmium in urine according to the lifestyle except drinking was higher in the exposed areas than in the compared areas in Yeosu. According to the past smoking and current smoking, the concentration of mercury in urine was higher in the compared areas than in the exposed areas in Gwangyang, but the passive smoking, drinking and exercise showed similar concentration levels both in the exposed and compared areas in Gwangyang. The concentration of mercury in urine according to the past smoking and current smoking was higher in the exposed areas than in the compared areas in Yeosu, but the concentration of mercury in urine according to the drinking and exercise was lower in the exposed areas than in the compared areas in Yeosu. According to the past smoking, the concentration of lead in blood showed similar concentration levels in the exposed and compared areas in Gwangyang, but regarding current and passive smoking, it was higher in the compared areas than in the exposed areas in Gwangyang. Especially, the concentration of lead in blood according to the drinking in Gwangyang showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The concentration of lead in blood according to the lifestyle was higher in the compared areas than in the exposed areas in Yeosu.
This study measured and analyzed the heavy metal (Cd, As) content of fine dust in the city of Gwangyang, Jeonnam from September 19 to September 22, 2016. For cadmium, the arithmetic average was 0.21 ng/m3 (0.12~0.49 ng/ m3), which did not exceed the WHO's recommended level. The average of arsenic was 2.41 ng/m3 (0.30~142.08 ng/ m3) and the geometric mean was 11.18 ng/m3, which exceeded the WHO's recommended standard in 16 out of 24 measurements. In the case of cadmium, the CTE of male was 9.22 × 10−8 RME 1.91 × 10−7 and the female CTE was 9.44 × 10−8 RME 1.92 × 10−7, which did not exceed the EPA limit of CTE 2.18 × 10−5 RME 1.51 × 10−4 for men and CTE 2.23 × 10−5 RME 1.51 × 10−4 For women, CTE 2.23 × 10−5 RME 1.51 × 10−4 results were obtained, which exceeded the EPA's recommended limit and also exceeded the maximum allowable limit of 10-4.
We measured VOCs and NO2 in the indoor and outdoor air at 125 houses in Jeollanam-do and Gyeongsangnamdo, from March 2007 to January 2008. The concentration of benzene measured in the Gwangyang survey group was higher than in Yeosu and Hadong, and showed a statistically significant difference from Yeosu (p<0.05). The concentration of toluene in outdoor air was highest in the Gwangyang survey group. The concentration of NO2 measured in the Yeosu survey group was higher than in Gwangyang and Hadong, and showed a statistically significant difference from Hadong (p<0.01). According to the results of a correlation analysis, VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene) exposure of individuals showed a significant correlation with the residential indoor air (p<0.01). Also, VOCs of residential indoor and outdoor air showed a significant correlation (p<0.01). The concentration of NO2 exposure of individuals measured in the Yeosu comparison group showed a high correlation with the residential indoor air.
The concentration of VOCs, NO2 was measured both inside and outside residential homes surrounding an industrial complex. Measurements were performed in the area of the industrial complexes and around 10 km away from the industrial complex area. Benzene did not exceed the air quality standard value. Toluene exhibited a high value of concentration in outdoor Yeosu investigated group. The concentration of NO2 is higher than outside concentrations of houses in both inside housing research group compared with the group of Gwangyang and Yeosu. Benzene and toluene showed high correlation (p<0.001) in the housing interior in Gwangyang, It showed a high correlation (p<0.01) in the housing interior in the comparison group. In Yeosu there was a high correlation (p<0.001) between the inside and outside of the housing in the survey group. In the control group there was only high correlation (p<0.05) in the inside of the housing.
The study measured the volatile organic compounds consistency of the child tympanitis patient family. Benzene, the result which analyzes toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and TVOC consistency, case of personal exposure they were 0.518 μg/m3, 0.909 μg/m3, 1.299 μg/m3, 0.960 μg/m3 and 273.718 μg/m3 respectively, case it appeared with benzene the interior 0.539 μg/m3 and toluene 1.433 μg/m3 and ethylbenzene 1.253 μg/m3 and xylene 1.899 μg/m3 and TVOC 262.132 μg/m3. The consistency of the outdoor benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and TVOC appeared respectively with 0.512 μg/m3, 0.474 μg/m3, 1.177 μg/m3, 0.862 μg/m3 and 22.306 μg/m3. Personal exposure, the residential interior, interrelationship analytical result Benzene of outdoor consistency and Ethyl benzene, Xylene and TVOC personal exposures with the interior and outdoor consistency showed the interrelationship which considers(p < 0.01). VOCs consistency which it follows in residential type the detached home > the multi generation house > the consistency price came out with the apartment order, VOCs consistency which it follows construction year possibility the year valence which is built 4 years at once rises the consistency appeared more highly the case where the case is above 4 years than.
섬유기계산업은 생산성의 극대화를 위해 고속/정밀화를 추구하고 있으며 수요자의 요구에 따라 높은 내구성과 안정성, 신뢰성을 가진 기계를 요구하고 있다 본 연구에서는 워터제트직기를 대상으로 실제 운전 시 구동계에 토크센서를 부착하여 모듈별로 직기에 영향을 미치는 부하량을 측정 및 분석하였다 또한, 워터제트직기에 대한 동역학적 해석을 수행한 결과와 비교함으로서 섬유기계의 구동계에 대한 토크와 진동에 대한 계측 및 분석기술을 개발하고, 내구성과 안정성이 뛰어난 고부가가치의 섬유기계 개발에 대한 기초자료를 제시하였다.
A preventive maintenance model, caller FNBM(α, δ, γ)model, is proposed to decide an optimal repair number under achieved availability requirements(r) along with taking two types of failures (repairable or irrepairable) into account. In this model, the current system is replaced by a new one in case when it doesn't meet the achieved availability requirement, even though it is repairable failure; Otherwise it is replaced in time of the first irrepairable failure. Assumed that the j-th failure is repairable with probability αj minimal repairs are allowed for repairable failure between replacements. Expected cost rate for preventive maintenance model is developed using NHPP(Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process) in order to determine the optimal number n*, also numerical examples are shown in order to explain the proposed model. Since the proposed FNBM(α, δ, γ)model includes Park FNBM model(1979) and Nakagawa FNBM(p)model(1983) this proposed model is thought to be better than previous model, especially for weapon system which requires availability as primary parameter.
예로부터 선장은 경험적으로 기상, 선박 제원 상태 및 운항 일정을 고려하여 최적의 항로를 선택하여 항해하여 왔다. 이는 선장의 경험을 바탕으로 해류나 파랑에 대한 기상 예보 정보를 활용하여 최적항로를 결정하는 것으로 아직까지 선상에서 항로 결정을 보조해주는 디지털화한 시스템은 그 사례를 찾아보기 힘들다. 본 논문에서는 선박의 운항 효율성과 안전성의 관점에서 구성된 선상 최적 항로 안전 평가 시스템을 소개한다. 선사와 선장이 요구하는 효율적인 항해를 위해서는 도착예정시간 및 연료소모량을 최소로 하는 최적 항로를 구한다. 이는 선박의 파랑 중 부가저항에 기초를 둔 선속 저하 빚 마력 증가를 고려하여 계산한다. 안전성 관점에서는 3D 판넬법에 기초를 둔 선박의 내항 계산을 본 시스템에서 구현하여 내항 평가를 수행하며, 최종적으로 선박의 항로 안전 계획 및 평가를 위한 보조 수단이다.
Many technical and nontechnical issues hinder enterprise wide workflow management. The most significant technical issue is the inability to deal with the heterogeneity among users, workflow types, and WFMSs. Not all users demand the same workflow functionality, so user interfaces of different levels of sophistication are required. Because workflow types cannot always be fully predefined, they often need to be adjusted or extended during execution. Unlike relational database management systems, however, each WFMS often has differing workflow metamodels. This leads to incompatibility between WFMSs, making integration into an environment comprising many heterogeneous WFMSs a troublesome and sometimes impossible task. Current Workflow system consists mainly of Database system. It contains some problems like that the integration relationship among system processes cant be expressed properly. This research has been focused on two phases that should be considered in the Workflow system. First of all, the first phase is the analysis phase; one of its role is to figure out independent execution task unit(Workflow component). The second phase is design phase that provides with the framework to execute these task units actively. The Workflow component extraction method in the analysis phase uses a analysis method called C-C Net and, in the design phase, the architecture that makes the these Workflow component executed actively is provided. Through this research, each process is divided into a task unit and more effective Workflow system could be formed by executing these units actively. Current system layer calls task units, on the other hand, the Workflow system this research implemented provides with the architecture that places a layer between them that controls task units actively.
This study expands limitation of OASIS(Optimal Allocation of Spares for Initial Supports) program, which calculates CSP(Concurrent Spare Part), not only availability but also cost, and developed the program enabling run in WINDOW OS. By considering multi-step repair and logistics support system, repairing capability at the time of deployment, and procurement period, this model is the first local model reflecting circumstances of the armed forces of the Republic of Korea. Furthermore, the programmed model was selected as the military standard software and has being essentially used for CSP calculation.
The Cost has been much emphasized in inside of an army because of the promotion of reconciliation atmosphere between South and North Korea and the reduction of defense budget since 1990. So we are now faced with the problem that we should consider a cost above all besides the performance and arrangement for such a restriction of budget in time of developing new generation weapon systems. In this research we are suggested following two methodologies. One is the develop a weapon system with optimum cost considering a Life Cycle Cost from the first stage of design and the other is the cost control and management with the establishment of Target cost.
One of The standard issue in riding on the wave of the information system(IS) is records of performance, grow unprecedently fast, and has highly uncertain future. Within the framework of IS Evaluation, The main purpose of this study is to suggest performance quality evaluation system as follows, The Integrated Quality Evaluation Model Design(IQEMD) of Information System helps corporations to improve productivity, customer service and corporate competitive power. To respond flexibly this trend, we have to realize that the information system has to keep the most effective optimal information network at the proper time. The existing evaluation method has been concentrated on the evaluation of a degree of the information system maturity focused on static viewpoints. The evaluation of potential factors to affect the future-oriented performance, that can analyze both unit business being able to apply an information system base was used efficiently well and what performance evaluation item was obtained actually, was insufficient relatively. In this paper, An integrated quality evaluation method will analyze a degree of information system maturity in dynamic evaluation viewpoints rather than in static evaluation viewpoints. finally we estimated the relative degree of importance of each determinant using the AHP methodology The validity of the proposed model was also partially proved using two different methods, holistic and historical approach.