Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of head and neck cancer and is associated with high recurrence, poor treatment, and low survival rates. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that regulates the response to hypoxia, a major factor in the tumor microenvironment that affects tumor development and progression in various cancer types. However, microRNA (miRNA) sequence analysis revealed that only a few miRNAs targeting HIF-1α had been discovered. In the present study, we investigated HIF-1α expression in OSCC and the effect of HIF-1α-targeting miRNAs on the progression and metastatic potential of OSCC. We analyzed public databases to explore which miRNAs target HIF-1α expression. In addition, the expression of proteins involved in the cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis in HSC-2 cells was analyzed after miRNA-126 mimic treatment. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of miRNA-126 on the proliferation and invasion ability of OSCC cells, 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine and Transwell assays were performed. The activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were evaluated via gelatin zymography. Our results showed that miRNA-126, which targets HIF-1α, enhances OSCC cell proliferation by regulating the cell cycle and reinforces the cell mobility of OSCC via HIF-1α expression. These findings suggest that miRNA-126 may be a novel marker for OSCC treatment and the development of new tools for patients with OSCC.