The importance of urban green space creation is increasingly recognized as the most realistic and efficient approach for fine dust mitigation in urban areas. Particularly considering the characteristics of domestic cities, the application of buffer green spaces along roads can maximize the efficiency of fine dust reduction without the need for separate green space creation. Accordingly, this study analyzed the fine dust mitigation effects based on the types of plantings in the central dividers and roadside trees in Jeonju City, Jeollabuk-do. To do this, we controlled various external variables of urban space and considered the planting arrangement types in the central dividers, carrying out the analysis using a CFD simulation. The simulation results confirmed that the central dividers with plantings demonstrated more effective ultrafine dust reduction than those without. Moreover, the arrangement of roadside trees showed a greater ultrafine dust reduction effect when adopting a multilayered structure compared to a single layer. Based on these findings, we concluded that installing both trees and shrubs simultaneously in the central dividers and along roads was effective for ultrafine dust mitigation. On this basis, we quantified the dust reduction effects of plants in urban street environments and proposed planting guidelines for roadside green spaces to improve air quality.