This study was conducted to investigate the growth characteristics of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ‘Joeunbaekdadagi’) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. ‘Dotaerang Dia’) seedlings by light intensities and CO2 concentrations in a closed-type plant production system (CPPS). Cucumber and tomato seeds were sown in 50-cell trays and germinated in CPPS at air temperature 25 ± 1°C and relative humidity 50 ± 10% for 4 days. After germination, the CO2 concentrations and light intensity treatment were treated at 500 (ambient), 1,000, and 1,500 μmol·mol-1 and 100, 200, and 300 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), respectively. The leaf area of cucumber showed the highest value in CO2 1,500 μmol·mol-1. However, the leaf area of the tomato had no significant difference in CO2 concentrations and light intensities treatments. In cucumber and tomato both seedlings, the growth and quality such as compactness and leaf area rate were increased with the increase of light intensity, and there were highest in 300 μmol·m-2·s-1. The root surface and number of root tips of cucumber and tomato seedlings were significantly increased with the increase in light intensity. In conclusion, the regulation of the CO2 concentrations and light intensity can control the growth and quality of cucumber and tomato seedlings in CPPS, especially, increasing the light intensity can improve more significantly the growth and quality of seedlings.
This study is in order to the effect of 1-methlycyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and film package as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the changes in fruit quality factors of 'Daehong' peaches during cold storage. The concentrations of 1-MCP were treated at 1μL·L-1 and 2μL·L-1, and peaches in film package were stored for 28 days in cold storage at 5±1°C and 85±5% RH. The fruits stored carton box were used as a control of MAP, and 1-MCP free fruits were used as the control of both packages. Rate of fresh weight loss during storage was not significantly different between groups with and without 1-MCP treatment, but was higher in the box package than in the MAP. The control group had a higher incidence of both gases with the 1-MCP treatment group showing statistically significantly low. Carbon dioxide in the package was lowered by about 12% compared to the non-treated group, and the ethylene concentration was maintained at 1μL·L-1, showing a significance low compared to other treated groups. As the storage period elapsed, the firmness of 1-MCP and MAP treated fruits remained significant at 5-9% compared to the control group. Regardless of the packaging method Hunter a* values of exocarp and mesocarp were significantly higher in fruit treated with 1-MCP 1μL·L-1 treatment than in the control group, and anthocyanin was significantly higher in the fruit during the storage period, especially high in MAP. In summary, fruits of MAP group with 1-MCP 1μL·L-1 had rate of lower respiration and ethylene production, and little changes in firmness, Hunter a* values of exo-carp and meso-carp, and anthocyanin, which is considered the most suitable method for preserving postharvest quality of the peach cultivar during the storage.
Recently, a closed-type plant factory has been receiving attention as a advanced agricultural method. It has diverse advantages such as climate-independence, high productivity and stable year-round production. However, high energy cost caused by environmental control system is considered as a challenges of a closed-type plant factory. In order to reduce the energy cost, investigation about energy load which is directly connected to energy consumption needs to be conducted. In this study, energy load changes of a plant factory have been analytically analyzed according to the environmental changes. The target plant factory was a lettuce growing container farm. Firstly, the impact of photoperiod, set temperature and relative humidity change were examined. Under the climate condition of Daejeon in South Korea, increase of photoperiod and set temperature rose a yearly energy demand of a container farm. However, increase of set relative humidity decreased a yearly energy demand. Secondly, the climate environment effect was compared by investigating the energy demand under 9 different climate conditions. As a result, the difference between maximum and minimum value of the yearly energy demand showed 21.7%. Lastly, sensitivity analysis of each parameter (photoperiod, set temperature and relative humidity) has been suggested under 3 different climate conditions. The ratio of heating and cooling demand was varied depending on the climate, so the effect of each parameter became different.
The importance of urban green space creation is increasingly recognized as the most realistic and efficient approach for fine dust mitigation in urban areas. Particularly considering the characteristics of domestic cities, the application of buffer green spaces along roads can maximize the efficiency of fine dust reduction without the need for separate green space creation. Accordingly, this study analyzed the fine dust mitigation effects based on the types of plantings in the central dividers and roadside trees in Jeonju City, Jeollabuk-do. To do this, we controlled various external variables of urban space and considered the planting arrangement types in the central dividers, carrying out the analysis using a CFD simulation. The simulation results confirmed that the central dividers with plantings demonstrated more effective ultrafine dust reduction than those without. Moreover, the arrangement of roadside trees showed a greater ultrafine dust reduction effect when adopting a multilayered structure compared to a single layer. Based on these findings, we concluded that installing both trees and shrubs simultaneously in the central dividers and along roads was effective for ultrafine dust mitigation. On this basis, we quantified the dust reduction effects of plants in urban street environments and proposed planting guidelines for roadside green spaces to improve air quality.
This study was conducted to determine the optimal dipping time and concentration of gibberellin for improving the growth and quality of domestic cultivar 'Seolhyang' strawberry when using runner plants. Strawberry runner plants were collected on November 10th and soaked in GA3 concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg·L-1 for 30 and 60 minutes, respectively. After 75 days of planting, the growth results showed that in the 30-minute, 50 mg·L-1 treatment, the crown diameter was thicker and the T/R ratio was lower, indicating better plant vitality. Runner length increased with lower gibberellin concentrations, particularly promoting vegetative growth. Photosynthetic efficiency was more influenced by gibberellin concentration than dipping time, and using concentrations above a certain threshold acted as a stress factor for runner plants, leading to decreased photosynthetic efficiency. For enhancing seedling growth, soaking with 50 mg·L-1 of gibberellin for 30 minutes was found to be optimal. This study verified the effects of gibberellin treatment on strawberry runner plants to improve plant growth and quality, providing useful basic data for using gibberellin.
This study aimed to investigate the changes in bioactive compounds across the ripening stages of three pepper cultivars, each characterized by unique skin colors. The samples used in this study consisted of three pepper cultivars distinguished by their skin colors as green, purple, and yellow green at breaker ripening stage. Samples were harvested at each of the four ripening stages, including premature, breaker, turning, and mature, and subjected to analysis for various bioactive compounds, including capsaicin, ascorbic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, and sugars. In all cultivars with varying skin colors, the capsaicin content within green pepper fruits consistently increased as the ripening stages advanced. Ascorbic acid was most abundant during the premature stage of development in purple and green cultivars, subsequently declining as maturation progressed. In the case of the purple cultivar, kaempferol content decreased by approximately 30% at the mature stage, while the green cultivar exhibited a gradual increase in kaempferol content with maturation. Conversely, the kaempferol content of the yellow green cultivar rapidly declined as maturation progressed. Regarding quercetin content, the purple and green cultivars tended to decrease with maturity, while the yellow green cultivar displayed an increasing trend. Furthermore, the accumulation patterns of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, the predominant free sugars in green pepper fruit, demonstrated an inclination to increase as the maturation stage advanced in both purple and green cultivars. In contrast, the yellow green cultivar initially showed an elevation in free sugar content during the immature stage, followed by a minor reduction during maturation and a subsequent rise during the mature stage. Each pepper cultivar, distinguished by its unique skin color, exhibits varying levels of bioactive substances at different ripening stages. Therefore, optimal harvesting and utilization should align with periods when the desired substance content is at its peak.
시설 재배 시, 미세먼지의 잦은 발생은 피복재의 광투과율을 감소시키고 이는 작물의 생육에 간접적인 영 향을 미칠 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 미세먼지 발생에 따른 폴리에틸렌(PE)과 폴리올레핀(PO) 필름의 광투과율 변화 를 조사하고, 피복재의 광투과율 감소에 따른 봄철 재배 오이의 생육 변화를 확인하였다. 미세먼지 발생 챔버를 이 용하여 PE와 PO 필름을 지속적으로 미세먼지에 노출시켰을 때, PE 필름에서 미세먼지 발생에 의한 광투과율 감소 가 PO 필름보다 크게 나타났다. PE 필름에 인위적으로 먼지를 부착시켜서 대조구 대비 10, 20 및 30% 광투과율 감 소 처리구를 설정한 후 오이를 재배하였을 때, 3월 말 이후 재배 후반기에서의 오이 생육은 광투과율 감소 처리구에 서 증가하였으나, 누적 수확량은 대조구에서 가장 높았다. 봄철 오이 재배에서 미세먼지 발생에 의한 광투과율 감 소는 3월 말 이후 시설 내 고온 노출에 의한 생육 지연을 줄일 수 있었으나, 전 생육 기간 동안의 광투과율 감소는 입 사광량의 감소 및 광합성의 저하로 오이의 총 수확량을 감소시켰다.
To harvest marketable cucumbers, high quality seedlings must be used. Producing seedlings in the greenhouse during the low radiation period decreases marketability due to insufficient light for growth. Supplemental lighting with artificial light of different quality can be used to improve low light conditions and produce high quality seedlings. Therefore, this study was conducted to select the appropriate supplemental light sources on the growth and seedling quality of grafted cucumber seedlings during the low radiation period. Three cultivars of cucumber were used as scions for grafting; ‘NakWonSeongcheongjang’, ‘Sinsedae’, and ‘Goodmorning baekdadagi’. Figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia) ‘Heukjong’ was used as the rootstock. The seeds were sown on January 26, 2023, and grafted on February 9, 2023. After graft-taking, cucumbers in plug trays were treated with RB light-emitting diodes (LED, red and blue LED, red:blue = 8:2), W LED (white LED, R:G:B = 5:3:2), and HPS (high-pressure sodium lamp), respectively. Non-treatment was used as the control. Supplemental lighting was applied 2 hours before sunrise and 2 hours after sunset for 19 days. The stem diameter and fresh and dry weights of roots did not differ significantly by supplemental light sources. The plant height and hypocotyl length were decreased in W LED. However, the leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, and fresh and dry weights of shoots were the highest in the RB LED. Seedling qualities such as crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, and compactness were also increased in RB LED and W LED. After transplanting, most of the growth was not significant, but early yield of cucumber was higher in LED than non-treatment. In conclusion, using RB LED, W LED for supplemental light source during low radiation period in grafted cucumber seedlings improved growth, seedling quality, and early yield of cucumber.
For appropriate nutrient management and enhanced plant growth, soil sensors which reflect soil nutrient levels are required. Because there is no available sensor for nutrient monitoring, electrical conductivity (EC) sensor can be used to evaluate soil nutrient levels. Soil nutrient management using EC sensors would be possible by understanding the relationship between sensor EC values and soil temperature, moisture, and nutrient content. However, the relationship between soil sensor EC values and plant available nutrients was not investigated. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to evaluate effect of different amount of urea on soil EC monitored by sensors during pepper and broccoli cultivation and to predict the plant available nutrient contents in soil. During the cultivation period, soil was collected periodically for analyzing pH and EC, and the available nutrient contents. The sensor EC value increased as the moisture content increased, and low fertilizer treated soil showed the lowest EC value. Principal component analysis was performed to determine the relationship between sensor EC and available nutrients in soil. Sensor EC showed a strong positive correlation with nitrate nitrogen and available Ca. In addition, sum of available nutrients such as Ca, Mg, K, P, S and N was positively related to the sensor EC values. Therefore, EC sensors in open field can be used to predict plant available nutrient levels for proper management of the soil.
This study examines the characteristics of berries from secondary bearing shoots of ‘Scintilla’ southern highbush blueberry, grown hydroponically in the Jinju, Gimhae, and Uiryeong regions of Gyeongnam Province. Typically, ‘Scintilla’ forms flower buds at the tips of regular bearing shoots during the previous season, yielding berries in the current season. However, under heated cultivation, we observed a proliferation of secondary bearing shoots that produce berries in the same growing season. Flowering and harvesting on secondary bearing shoots were delayed by 52 and 36 days, respectively, compared to regular bearing shoots. However, these shoots exhibited a 54% increase in diameter and a 10% increase in length. We found no significant difference in berry size and soluble solid content between the two types of shoots. Notably, berries from the secondary bearing shoots had higher potassium and lower calcium and magnesium concentrations. We conclude that berries from secondary bearing shoots could be marketable, provided the bushes are healthy. These findings provide valuable insights for optimizing cultural practices to improve the yield and quality of blueberries under specific environmental conditions.
Ultra-violet (UV) light is one of abiotic stress factors and causes oxidative stress in plants, but a suitable level of UV radiation can be used to enhance the phytochemical content of plants. The accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds in UV-exposed plants may vary depending on the conditions of plant (species, cultivar, age, etc.) and UV (wavelength, energy, irradiation period, etc.). To date, however, little research has been conducted on how leaf thickness affects the pattern of phytochemical accumulation. In this study, we conducted an experiment to find out how the antioxidant phenolic content of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) leaves with different thicknesses react to UV-A light. Kale seedlings were grown in a controlled growth chamber for four weeks under the following conditions: 20°C temperature, 60% relative humidity, 12-hour photoperiod, light source (fluorescent lamp), and photosynthetic photon flux density of 121±10 μmol m-2 s-1. The kale plants were then transferred to two chambers with different CO2 concentrations (382±3.2 and 1,027±11.7 μmol mol-1), and grown for 10 days. After then, each group of kale plants were subjected to UV-A LED (275+285 nm at peak wavelength) light of 25.4 W m-2 for 5 days. As a result, when kale plants with thickened leaves from treatment with high CO2 were exposed to UV-A, they had lower UV sensitivity than thinner leaves. The Fv/Fm (maximum quantum yield on photosystem II) in the leaves of kale exposed to UV-A in a low-concentration CO2 environment decreased abruptly and significantly immediately after UV treatment, but not in kale leaves exposed to UV-A in a high-concentration CO2 environment. The accumulation pattern of total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and individual phenolic compounds varied according to leaf thickness. In conclusion, this experiment suggests that the UV intensity should vary based on the leaf thickness (age etc.) during UV treatment for phytochemical enhancement.
This study aimed to investigate the growth and phenol content changes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under five different light intensities and photoperiods, maintaining the same Daily Light Integral (DLI) conditions in a plant factory. Basil seeds were sown on a rockwool medium for four weeks and then transplanted. To maintain a DLI 17mol·m-2·d-1, light intensity and photoperiod were set at 16h-295, 18h-260, 20h-235, 22h-215, and 24h-200μ mol·m-2·s-1 and cultivated for four weeks. The harvested results showed that basil plant height, number of lateral branches, and leaf number tended to decrease from the 16h-295 treatment to the 24h-200 treatment. Shoot fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area, leaf width, and leaf length were significantly higher in the 18 h-260 treatment. The total phenolic contents in the 18h-260 treatment was significantly higher by 51.3%, 172.7%, 111%, and 119.7% compared to the 16h-295, 20h-235, 22h-215, and 24h-200 treatments, respectively. Therefore, it is anticipated that cultivating basil under the condition of 18h-260 treatment could yield enhanced growth quality and an increase in total phenolic contents.
자생식물은 관상용, 약용, 식량자원으로 활용될 수 있는 잠재력을 지닌 고유 유전자원이다. 돌부추(Allium koreanum H.J. Choi & B.U. Oh)는 우리나라 해안 암반지대에 분포하는 자생식물 중 하나로, 기후변화와 서식지 감 소로 인해 보전 가치가 높은 식물이다. 이번 연구는 온도와 과산화수소가 돌부추의 발아에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위해 수행되었다. 종자를 무처리(대조군) 또는 1% 과산화수소(H2O2)로 90분간 처리한 종자를 준비해 15, 20, 25°C 로 설정된 식물 생장 챔버에 배치하였다. 그 결과, 파종 23일 후 15°C에서 42%인 발아율이 20°C와 25°C에서 각각 18%와 0%인 발아율보다 2배 이상 높았으며, H2O2 처리 여부와 관계없이 15°C에서 발아율이 42%로 가장 높았다. H2O2 처리와 관계없이 최종 발아율 50%(T50)에 도달하는 일수는 20°C에서 가장 짧았지만, 일평균 발아율(MDG)은 15°C에서 가장 높았다. 따라서 1%의 H2O2 처리는 돌부추의 발아율에 큰 영향을 미치지 않았으며, 15°C의 온도가 돌부추의 발아율을 높이는 데 최적인 것으로 판단된다. 본 연구 결과는 돌부추의 발아를 위한 기초 연구 자료로 활 용될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
This study was conducted to develop a model for predicting the growth of kimchi cabbage using image data and environmental data. Kimchi cabbages of the ‘Cheongmyeong Gaual’ variety were planted three times on July 11th, July 19th, and July 27th at a test field located at Pyeongchang-gun, Gangwon-do (37°37′ N 128°32′ E, 510 elevation), and data on growth, images, and environmental conditions were collected until September 12th. To select key factors for the kimchi cabbage growth prediction model, a correlation analysis was conducted using the collected growth data and meteorological data. The correlation coefficient between fresh weight and growth degree days (GDD) and between fresh weight and integrated solar radiation showed a high correlation coefficient of 0.88. Additionally, fresh weight had significant correlations with height and leaf area of kimchi cabbages, with correlation coefficients of 0.78 and 0.79, respectively. Canopy coverage was selected from the image data and GDD was selected from the environmental data based on references from previous researches. A prediction model for kimchi cabbage of biomass, leaf count, and leaf area was developed by combining GDD, canopy coverage and growth data. Single-factor models, including quadratic, sigmoid, and logistic models, were created and the sigmoid prediction model showed the best explanatory power according to the evaluation results. Developing a multi-factor growth prediction model by combining GDD and canopy coverage resulted in improved determination coefficients of 0.9, 0.95, and 0.89 for biomass, leaf count, and leaf area, respectively, compared to single-factor prediction models. To validate the developed model, validation was conducted and the determination coefficient between measured and predicted fresh weight was 0.91, with an RMSE of 134.2 g, indicating high prediction accuracy. In the past, kimchi cabbage growth prediction was often based on meteorological or image data, which resulted in low predictive accuracy due to the inability to reflect on-site conditions or the heading up of kimchi cabbage. Combining these two prediction methods is expected to enhance the accuracy of crop yield predictions by compensating for the weaknesses of each observation method.
The effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP, nitric oxide donor) on the growth, yield, photosynthetic characteristics, and antioxidant enzyme activity of kimchi cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt) was studied under the low temperature conditions. Kimchi cabbages were treated with SNP of three concentrations (7.5, 15, 30 mg·L-1) for three times at four-day intervals and exposed to low temperature (16/7°C) stress for seven days. SNP treatment induced increases of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intracellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) under the stress condition with the highest level after the third treatment. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 were significantly lower in the treatment of SNP compared to the non-treated control. The activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), increased in treated plants by up to 38, 187, 24 and 175%, respectively compared to the non-treated control. SNP-treated and untreated plants had similar growth characteristics. Compared to the control group, SNP-treatment increased fresh weight and leaf area by 5%. Overall, our findings suggest that the application of sodium nitroprusside to the leaves contributes to reducing physiological damage and enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving low temperature stress tolerance in kimchi cabbage.
증산은 적정 관수 관리에 중요한 역할을 하므로 수분 스트레스에 취약한 토마토와 같은 작물의 관개 수요에 대한 지식이 필요하다. 관수량을 결정하는 한 가지 방법은 증산량을 측정하는 것인데, 이는 환경이나 생육 수준의 영향을 받는다. 본 연구는 분단위 데이터를 통해 수학적 모델과 딥러닝 모델을 활용하여 토마토의 증발량을 추정하 고 적합한 모델을 찾는 것을 목표로 한다. 라이시미터 데이터는 1분 간격으로 배지무게 변화를 측정함으로써 증산 량을 직접 측정했다. 피어슨 상관관계는 관찰된 환경 변수가 작물 증산과 유의미한 상관관계가 있음을 보여주었다. 온실온도와 태양복사는 증산량과 양의 상관관계를 보인 반면, 상대습도는 음의 상관관계를 보였다. 다중 선형 회귀 (MLR), 다항 회귀 모델, 인공 신경망(ANN), Long short-term memory(LSTM), Gated Recurrent Unit(GRU) 모델을 구 축하고 정확도를 비교했다. 모든 모델은 테스트 데이터 세트에서 0.770－0.948 범위의 R2 값과 0.495mm/min－ 1.038mm/min의 RMSE로 증산을 잠재적으로 추정하였다. 딥러닝 모델은 수학적 모델보다 성능이 뛰어났다. GRU 는 0.948의 R2 및 0.495mm/min의 RMSE로 테스트 데이터에서 최고의 성능을 보여주었다. LSTM과 ANN은 R2 값이 각각 0.946과 0.944, RMSE가 각각 0.504m/min과 0.511로 그 뒤를 이었다. GRU 모델은 단기 예측에서 우수한 성능 을 보였고 LSTM은 장기 예측에서 우수한 성능을 보였지만 대규모 데이터 셋을 사용한 추가 검증이 필요하다. FAO56 Penman-Monteith(PM) 방정식과 비교하여 PM은 MLR 및 다항식 모델 2차 및 3차보다 RMSE가 0.598mm/min으로 낮지만 분단위 증산의 변동성을 포착하는 데 있어 모든 모델 중에서 가장 성능이 낮다. 따라서 본 연구 결과는 온실 내 토마토 증산을 단기적으로 추정하기 위해 GRU 및 LSTM 모델을 권장한다.
The blockage rate for three kinds of nets commonly used in agricultural facilities was assessed by using the image acquisition and its relevant processing. By using both empirical relations presented by Idel’chik and Richards and Robinson, and the blockage rate obtained from the image processing, the pressure drop through the nets was predicted and also compared with wind tunnel experiment results. The results of the study showed that the blockage rate of the net was discriminated according to such factors as the magnitude of nets, the existence of inside threads, the thickness and number of threads. In addition, the blockage rate for the incident angle of 0° when the wind blew at the front had the range of 0.22－0.29 (0.22－0.32 when considering whole incident angles from 0° to 45° by 15°). For the nets with the blockage rate of about 30% or below, the prediction by the empirical relations of by Idel’chik and Richards and Robinson showed a little higher pressure drop overall than that of the wind tunnel test, but the use of the empirical relations and the blockage rate could be thought of as providing effectively meaningful guidelines for the safe design of agricultural facilities including nets because the wind tunnel test has been tedious and expensive. Further research and potential application on the prediction technique of the pressure drop, regarding both a subtle deformation by the wind and manufacturing methods with regard to the level of knots and the existence of inside threads, needs to be done for the nets with higher blockage rate.
This study was conducted to investigate optimal conditions for cutting propagation of the strawberry cultivar “Sulhyang” through the collection methods of cuttings (runners tips), leaf number of cuttings, and cutting time. Cuttings were collected from the mother plant in the nursery bed (MP) and plants after fruit harvest (HP); the leaf number of cuttings was 0, 1, and 2, and the cutting time was at one-week intervals from June 4 to July 9. The survival rates for MP and HP cuttings were notably high, reaching 99.5% and 98.7%, respectively, but no significant difference was found. The number of roots were higher in MP cuttings, and there was no significant difference in crown and leaf growth. The fruit yields were 419.2 and 428.4 g, for MP and HP cuttings, respectively. The survival rates according to leaf number of cuttings were 98.1% and 98.3% for 1 and 2 remaining leaves, respectively, and remarkably lower at 25.3% for no remaining leaves. The root numbers were 26.0 and 26.3 for 1 and 2 remaining leaves, respectively, compared with 23.5 for no remaining leaves, with no significant differences in crown and leaf growth. The fruit yields were 424.4 and 421.5 g for 1 and 2 remaining leaves, respectively, and 396.7 g for no remaining leaves. The survival rates according to cutting time was over 97.2% in all cutting time without any difference in each treatment. The root, shoot, and crown of the nursery plant before planting showed the best growth in the cuttings on June 4 and 11, resulting in the highest fruit yields of 433.3 and 426.4 g, respectively, with the lowest yields at 384.5 g for cutting time on July 9. Both MP and HP materials proved suitable for strawberry cuttings. The optimal leaf number for cuttings was at least 1, and the optimal cutting time in Gyeongnam area was evaluated as around June 4-11.
This study was aimed to determine the changes in CO2 concentration according to the temperatures of daytime and nighttime in the CO2 supplemental greenhouse, and to compare calculated supplementary CO2 concentration during winter and spring cultivation seasons. CO2 concentrations in experimental greenhouses were analyzed by selecting representative days with different average temperatures due to differences in integrated solar radiation at the growth stage of leaf area index (LAI) 2.0 during the winter season of 2022 and 2023 years. The CO2 concentration was 459, 299, 275, and 239 μmol·mol-1, respectively at 1, 2, 3, and 4 p.m. after the CO2 supplementary time (10:00-13:00) under the higher temperature (HT, > 18°C daytime temp. avg. 31.7, 26.8, 23.8, and 22.4°C, respectively), while it was 500, 368, 366, 364 μmol·mol-1, respectively under the lower temperature (LT, < 18°C daytime temp. avg. 22.0, 18.9, 15.0, and 13.7°C, respectively), indicating the CO2 reduction was significantly higher in the HT than that of LT. During the nighttime, the concentration of CO2 gradually increased from 6 p.m. (346 μmol·mol-1) to 3 a.m. (454 μmol·mol-1) in the HT with a rate of 11 μmol·mol-1 per hour (240 tomatoes, leaf area 330m2), while the increase was very lesser under the LT. During the spring season, the CO2 concentration measured just before the start of CO2 fertilization (7:30 a.m.) in the CO2 enrichment greenhouse was 3-4 times higher in the HT (>15°C nighttime temperature avg.) than that of LT (< 15°C nighttime temperature avg.), and the calculated amount of CO2 fertilization on the day was also lower in HT. All the integrated results indicate that CO2 concentrations during the nighttime varies depending on the temperature, and the increased CO2 is a major source of CO2 for photosynthesis after sunrise, and it is necessary to develop a model formula for CO2 supplement considering the nighttime CO2 concentration.
As aerial application increasing, with social concerning in pesticide drift rises, so this study attempts to establish a test bench that can repeatedly and continuously evaluate this. To this end, this study first analyze ISO 22866 and ASABE S561.1 among the international standard test methods related to pesticide fugitive evaluation. A test bench was established at the Naju practice field of Chonnam National University in accordance with international standards, and field tests were carried out (ISO 22866, ASABE S561.1) to verify effectiveness. A test bench that established in this study and a pesticide drift recovery protocol by aerial application can improve the experimental environment where field experiments were complex and it was difficult to achieve the same conditions. In addition, it will be possible to construct a database of pesticide drift that takes into account various factors that affect pesticide drift substances, which is expected to improve the reliability of the data, as well as quantitative evaluation of pesticide drift in the air.