This study was conducted to apply with an air duct for the cooling and a utilizing cultivating method that uses the fruiting node and the defoliation to the high-temperature vertical and hydroponic cultivation of the oriental melon. The lower fruiting node (LF) was to remove all third vines generated from 5 nodes of a secondary vine. The higher fruiting node (HF) was fruiting on the third vine generated from a first node of the third vine. The direction of the stem string; upward (UW), downward (DW). Four treatment conditions were applied with the LF-UW, LF-DW, HF-UW (control), and HF-DW. The leaf age of melon leaves was measured for photosynthesis at 3 days intervals, and the fruit characteristic was conducted on 79 fruits in each treatment. The photosynthesis rate steadily increased after leaf development, reaching 20.8 μmol CO2·m-2·s-1 on the 10 days, gradually increasing to 21.3 μmol CO2·m-2·s-1 on the 19 days, and reaching 23.4 μmol CO2·m-2·s-1 on the 32 days. After that, it lowered to 16.8 μmol CO2·m-2·s-1 on the 38 days and dropped significantly to 7.6 μmol CO2·m-2·s-1 on the 47 days. As a result of the fruit characteristics by fruiting nodes, the treatments of the fruit length was 12.6-13.4 cm, respectively, which was significant, and the fruit width was 7.9- 8.6 cm, respectively, was not significant. The soluble content ranged from 12.9 to 15.7°Brix, and the significance of all treatments, and higher than of LF-DW and HF-UW. The photosynthesis rate of melon leaves was good until 32 days after leaf development, but after that, the rate decreased. As for fruit quality, it was conformed that melons can be cultivated at the LF because the fruit enlargement and soluble content dose not decrease even when set at the LF. Results indicated that those can be used for LF and defoliation in the development of vertical and hydroponic cultivation method in high-temperature season.
Concentration of nitrogen, one of the major elements, and ratio of two nitrogen forms (NH4 + and NO3 –) in the nutrient solution affect the quality and food safety of fresh vegetable produce. This study was conducted to find an appropriate strength and NH4 +:NO3 – ratio of a nutrient solution for growth and development of a Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longiflora) ‘Caesar Green’, a representative leafy vegetable, grown in a home hydroponic system. In the first experiment, plants were grown using three types of nutrient solution: A commercial nutrient solution (Peters) and two strengths (GNU1 and GNU2) of a multipurpose nutrient solution (GNU solution) developed in a Gyeongsang National University lab. Plants grown with the GNU1 and GNU2 had greater shoot length, leaf length and width, and biomass yield than Peters. On the other hand, the root hairs of plants grown with Peters were short and dark in color. Tissue NH4 + content in the Peters was higher than that of the GNU1 and GNU2. The higher contents of NH4 + in this solution may have caused ammonium toxicity. In the second experiment, eight treatment solutions, combining GNU1 and GNU2 solutions with four ratios of NO3 –:NH4 + named as 1, 2, 3 and 4 were used. Both experiments showed more growth in the GNU2 group, which had a relatively low ionic strength of the nutrient solution. The growth of Romaine lettuce showed the greatest fresh weight along with low tissue NO3 – content in the GNU2-2. This was more advantageous in terms of food safety in that it suppressed the accumulation of surplus NO3 – in tissues due to the low ionic strength of the GNU2 subgroup. In addition, this is preferable in that it can reduce the absolute amount of the input of inorganic nutrients to the nutrient solution.
With rising concerns about pesticide spray drift by aerial application, this study attempt to evaluate aerodynamic property and collection efficiency of spray drift according to the leaf area index (LAI) of crop for preventing undesirable pesticide contamination by the spray-drift tunnel experiment. The collection efficiency of the plant with ‘Low’ LAI was measured at 16.13% at a wind speed of 1 m·s-1. As the wind speed increased to 2 m·s-1, the collection efficiency of plant with the same LAI level increased 1.80 times higher to 29.06%. For the ‘Medium’ level LAI, the collection efficiency was 24.42% and 43.06% at wind speed of 1 m·s-1 and 2 m·s-1, respectively. For the ‘High’ level LAI, it also increased 1.24 times higher as the wind speed increased. The measured results indicated that the collection of spray droplets by leaves were increased with LAI and wind speed. This also implied that dense leaves would have more advantages for preventing the drift of airborne spray droplets. Aerodynamic properties also tended to increase as the LAI increased, and the regression analysis of quadric equation and power law equation showed high explanatory of 0.96－0.99.
The leopard plant has the characteristic of being used for ornamental purposes when there are yellow spots on the leaves, and is widely used as a bed plant for viewing flowers. To set several indicators to predict the growth of crops with ornamental value, and to quantitatively express the relationship between the indicators are necessary. In this study, we determine a model that estimates the leaf area and the number of flower of Farfugium japonicum Kitam. using leaf length and width, and conducting a regression analysis on some regression models. As an indicator for estimating the leaf area and the number of flower, the leaf length and width of F. japonicum were measured and applied to 8 regression models. As a result of regression analysis of 8 models that estimated leaf area and the number of flower, R2 values of the linear models were all higher than 0.84 and 0.80. As a result of validation, using the most reliable model among the models for estimating the leaf area and the number of flowering, R2 was 0.90 and 0.82, respectively. Using a model that estimates various indicators that can be used for quality evaluation from easy-to-measure morphological factors, the evaluation of ornamental plants will be facilitated.
This study was aimed to determine the effects of grow media on the mineral contents of the leaves and growth characteristics of strawberry grown under aquaponics system in a plant factory. For aquaculture, 12 fish (Cyprinus carpio) (total weight, 2.0 kg) were raised in an aquaponics tank (W 0.7 m × L 1.5 m × H 0.45 m, 472.5 L) filled with 367.5 L of water at a density of 5.44 kg·m-3 and total 34 of strawberry seedlings were transplanted in the pots filed with 200 g of orchid stone, hydroball or polyurethane sponge in the growing bed (W 0.7 m × L 1.5 m × H 0.22 m) laid out with holly acrylic sheet (140×60 mm, Ø80) on the top of the system. The pH and EC of the aquaponic solution was ranged from 7.6 to 4.9 and 0.24－0.91 dS·m-1, respectively. The concentration of NO3-N was about 28% lower than that of the hydroponic standard solution, and K, Fe and B were 10, 27 and 3.8 times lower, respectively; however, the mineral contents of strawberry leaves were in the appropriate ranges with lower contents in the leaves grown with sponge media. The organic content (OM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) of the sludge were 61.5, 5.72, 8.92, and 0.24%, respectively. The leaf area, leaf number, and dry and fresh weights of shoot at 81 DAT were significantly higher in the hydroball, and the average number of fruits per plant was significantly higher in both the orchid stone and hydroball. There was no significant difference in the fresh and dry weights of fruits. Integrated all the results suggest that the orchid stone and hydroball media are more effective to utilize nutrients in solid particles of aquaponic solution, compared to the polyurethane sponge.
The Gymnocalycium mihanovichii has been an important export item of Korean flower industry for a long time. Although there is a high demand for grafted cactus from overseas, its production for export is limited. In this study, the growth and marketable yield characteristics of Gymnocalycium mihanovichii ‘I-Hong’ were compared between soil culture and ebb-and-flow hydroponic system with single- or double-tier bench. As a result, hydroponic methods with single-tier bench resulted in higher fresh weight and glove diameter compared to other cultivation methods. In the ebb-and-flow hydroponic system, hydroponic system with double-tier bench of grafted cactus traits has a lower growth rate than other cultivations. However, the hydroponic system with double-tier bench of grafted cactus significantly increased the yield. In conclusion, the yield from hydroponic system with double-tier bench was better than soil cultivation method. Although there were some differences in color depending on the cultivation method, it was considered that there was no difference in appearance of Gymnocalycium mihanovichii ‘I-Hong’. Our results suggest the cultivation methods to overcome production constraints, expand their exports, and improve the value-added characteristics of grafted cactus.
This study aims to select eggplant cultivars adaptive to the hot temperature period greenhouse climate by water consumption, and growth performance of plants and fruits of different European eggplant cultivars, including ‘Bartok (BA)’, ‘Bowie (BO)’, ‘Black Pearl (BP)’, ‘Ishbilia (I)’, ‘Mabel (M)’, ‘Vestale (VE)’ and ‘Velia (VL)’, in substrate hydroponic cultivation under hot and humid greenhouse conditions. On the 118 DAT, the leaf number and stem dry weight were highest in ‘VL’, followed by ‘M’, and there was no significant difference in leaf dry weight among cultivars. The marketable fruit number per plant was 16.4 for ‘M’, which was higher than other cultivars, and ‘VE’ and ‘VL’ were 8.5 and 8.8, respectively. The weight per fruit was low for ‘M’ at 136 g, and the highest in ‘VE’ and ‘VL’ at 332 and 281 g, respectively. There was no significant difference in fruit production per plant. In this study, ‘M’, which has high water use efficiency and a large number of fruits, and ‘VL’, which required less quantity to water consumption for producing 200 g of fruit and had a high product weight, will have excellent adaptability in the UAE greenhouse condition.
This study was conducted in an indoor cultivation room and chamber where environmental control is possible to investigate the effect of temperature and irrigation interval on photosynthesis, growth and growth analysis of potted seedling cucumber. The light intensity (70 W·m-2) and humidity (65%) were set to be the same. The experimental treatments were six combinations of three different temperatures, 15/10℃, 25/20℃, and 35/25°C, and two irrigation intervals, 100 mL per day (S) and 200 mL every 2 days (L). The treatments were named 15S, 15L, 25S, 25L, 35S, and 35L. Seedlings at 0.5 cm in height were planted in pots (volume:1 L) filled with sandy loam and treated for 21 days. Photosynthesis, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance at 14 days after treatment were highest in 25S. These were higher in S treatments with a shorter irrigation interval than L treatments. Total amount of irrigation water was supplied evenly at 2 L, but the soil moisture content was highest at 15S and lowest at 25S > 15L > 25L, 35S and 35L in that order. Humidity showed a similar trend at 15/10℃ (61.1%) and 25/20℃ (67.2%), but it was as high at 35/25°C (80.5%). Cucumber growth (plant height, leaf length, leaf width, chlorophyll content, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight) on day 21 was the highest in 25S. Growth parameters were higher in S with shorter irrigation intervals. Yellow symptom of leaf was occurred in 89.9% at 35S and 35L, where the temperature was high. Relative growth rate (RGR) and specific leaf weight (SLA) were high at 25/20℃ (25S, 25L), RGR tended to be high in the S treatment, and SLA in the L treatment. Water use efficiency (WUE) was high in the order of 25S, 25L > 15S > 15L, 35S, and 35L. As a result of the above, the growth and WUE were high at the temperature of 25/20℃.
Codonopsis lanceolata (S. et Z.) Trautv. is mainly cultivated in Korea and China as a medicinal crop. C. lanceolata is difficult to produce plug seedlings in the summer, because C. lanceolata has a low germination rate and is vulnerable to high temperatures. Cold treatment is effective in breaking dormancy of seeds and increasing the germination rate. Shading cultivation can control the solar irradiance received by plants and reduce the damage by high temperatures and strong light. This study was conducted to examine the appropriate cold treatment period for the improving germination of C. lanceolata, and shading level during the summer seedling period. Cold treatment experiments were conducted for 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks at 4°C before sowing. In the shading experiment, C. lanceolata was grown for 45 days with 0 (non-treatment), 45, 75% shading levels. Cold treatment for one week significantly improved the germination energy. The plant height, leaf area, and fresh and dry weights of C. lanceolata seedlings were significantly increased under the 45% shading level. Total root length, root surface area, and the number of root tips were significantly higher in shading treatment (45 and 75%) than in non-treatment. The C. lanceolata seedling’s compactness and Dickson’s quality index were the highest at 45% shading level. Therefore, these results recommended sowing C. lanceolata after cold treatment for one week at 4°C, and 45% shading level could stably culture C. lanceolata plug seedlings during the high temperature period.
Potato dry rot is one of the potato storage diseases caused by Fusarium species and is a representative pathological disorder that induced post-harvest loss during storage. Chlorpropham treatment for sprouting inhibition is mainly used for room temperature storage of potatoes for processing. In this study, the inhibitory effect of chlorpropham on Fusarium-induced dry rot of potato ‘Dano’. To investigate the mycelial growth rate of the dry rot fungus (Fusarium solani Appel & Wollenw), mycelial growth was investigated in a chlorpropham (5.0, 50.4, 503.8, and 5,038 ppm) and prochloraz (0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 ppm) medium containing F. oxysporum mycelia. Mycelia were more inhibited as the concentration of chlorpropham and prochloraz increased during incubation at 20°C, and the inhibition rate was 98.2% and 100% when treated with 503.8 ppm of chlorpropham and 10ppm of prochloraz in 14 days, respectively. Potato Dano tubers inoculated with F. oxysporum were dipped in chlorpropham (5.0, 50.4, and 503.8 ppm) and prochloraz (100 ppm) to investigate the effect of preventing dry rot during cold storage at 20°C and 4°C in vivo. The disease diameter of potatoes stored at room temperature (about 20°C) was reduced to 13.0 mm in the prochloraz 100 ppm teatment, and 10.7 mm in the chlorpropham 50.4 ppm treatment compared to 13.7 mm in the control tuber at 70 days of storage. The disease progression in all treatments including control was similar with no statistically significant difference at 4°C air temperature. From the results of this study, it is considered that treatment with 50.4 ppm of chlorpropham after harvest will be useful for suppressing dry rot of stored potatoes.
This study was carried out to determine the sprouting period of early and mid-season varieties, which includes ‘Atlantic’, ‘Chubaek’, and ‘Superior’, during the summer storage period in a semi-underground warehouse without cooling system. And also it was investigated the effect of chlorpropham [Propan-2-yl N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate, CIPC] treatment on the sprouting inhibition for the varieties. This study was conducted to figure out a sprout inhibitory effect when CIPC was applied to 1kg of the potato tubers at concentrations of 10 mg and 20 mg which are lower than the treatment concentrations of ca 30 mg prescribed by the positive list system (PLS). The internal temperature of the warehouse used in this experiment was lowered by 5°C or more than the outside temperature. The difference between the lowest and highest temperature during the experiment throughout the day was 5°C. It showed the effect of reducing to 1/2 of the difference in outdoor temperature. As for the sprouting of potatoes, the extremely early variety ‘Chubaek’ sprouts appeared at the 6th week of storage of control and it was the fastest sprouting potato among the control groups of the varieties. Sprouting began to appear in the Superior at the 6th week of storage, while the ‘Atlantic’ sprouted at the 8th week of storage. The appearance of sprouts was suppressed in all treatment groups of ‘Atlantic’ and ‘Superior’ varieties in CIPC treatments. Sprouts were observed in all treatment groups of ‘Chubaek’ after the 7th week, but the elongations of the sprouts in tubers were completely inhibited until the 8th week of storage. ‘Atlantic’ and ‘Superior’ seemed to have a sprouting inhibitory effect even with a low CIPC concentration of 10 mg·kg-1, with the exception of extremely early variety ‘Chubaek’ that breaks out of the dormancy quickly. Although weight loss occurred continuously during storage, it was minor loss of 0.7-1.6%. There was no consistent trend for changes of the loss in the varieties and CIPC treatments. Most common pathological disorder was the dry rot during the experiment, but only few were affected. The use of the tubers treated at 18°C and 90% RH for 10 days and the rack of refrigeration system which lead to lack of convection seemed to have suppressed the spread of pathogens.