This research was conducted to figure out the optimal size of the plug cell and seedling raising period in ‘Nongwoo’ and ‘Nonghyeop’ cultivars. In the first experiment on effect of plug cell size on growth of squash, seedlings were transplanted into hydroponic cultivation beds at different growing stages: Those in 32-cell trays with 3-4 true leaves at 25 days after sowing, those in 50-cell trays with 2 true leaves at 15 days after sowing, those in 105-cell trays just before a true leaf development, and those in 162-cell trays with only cotyledons at 8 days after sowing. In the second experiment on effect of seedling raising period on growth of squash, it was conducted to have different sowing dates. But the same transplanting date, based on the results of Experiment 1, and compared the differences in growth and fruit productivity as affected by plug cell size in the same way with experiment 1 including the cultivars and environmental conditions. After setting the transplanting date in advance, the number of days for sowing were calculated back for each treatment. In the first experiment, plant height was the greatest in 105-cell trays followed by 162, 50 and 32-cell trays in both cultivars. The best fruit quality was found in different treatments depending on the cultivars, although it was the lowest in 32-cell trays in both cultivars. The fruit quality was not significantly different among those from cell sizes. Therefore, when raising seedlings in 105-cell trays, the period of raising seedlings can be shortened as compared with the conventional 32-cell trays, and this change could reduce the workforce required for growing and transplanting seedlings. In the second experiment, after transplanting, shoot height and leaf width in the first measurement in both cultivars were greater in the 32-cell treatment. However, the last measurement after four weeks showed no significant difference in plant height, but significantly greatest leaf width in the smallest cell treatment, even as compared with that in 32-cell treatment. In case of ‘Nongwoo’, length and weight of the first harvested fruit showed the highest values in the treatment of 105-cell trays. In case of ‘Nonghyeop’ the 162-cell treatment along with the 105-cell treatment showed greatest length and weight of the first fruits. From these results, zucchini plug seedlings can be raised in plug trays with reduced cell sizes than the conventional 32-cell trays with improved fruit productivity.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of chlorine water and plasma gas treatment on the quality and microbial control of Latuca indica L. baby Leaf during storage. Latuca indica L. baby leaves were harvested from a plant height of 10cm. They were sterilized with 100μL·L-1 chlorine water and plasma-gas (1, 3, and 6hours), and packaged with 1,300cc·m-2·day-1·atm-1 films and then stored at 8±1?and RH 85±5% for 25days. During storage, the fresh weight loss of all treatments were less than 1.0%, and the carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations in packages were 6-8% and 16-17%, respectively for all treatments in the final storage day. The concentration of ethylene in the packages fluctuated between 1-3μL·L-1 during the storage and the highest concentration of ethylene was observed at 6 hours plasma treatment in the final storage day. The off-odor of all treatments were almost odorless, the treatments of chlorine water and 1 hour plasma maintained the marketable visual quality until the end of storage. Chlorophyll content and Hue angle value measured at the final storage day were similar to those measured before storage in chlorine water and 1 hour of plasma treatments. E. coli was not detected immediately after sterilization in all sterilization treatments. After 6 hours of plasma treatment, the total bacteria fungus counts were lower than the domestic microbial standard for agricultural product in all sterilization treatments. The total aerobic counts in the end storage day increased compared to before storage, whereas E. coli was not detected in all sterilization treatments. The sterilization effect against bacteria and fungi was the best in chlorine water treatment. Plasma treatment showed sterilization effects, but within a prolonged period of time. In addition, the sterilization effect decreased gradually. These results suggest that chlorine water and plasma treatment were effective in maintaining Latuca indica L. baby Leaf commerciality and controlling microorganisms during postharvest storage.
The purpose of this study is to provide basic data for setting environmental design standards for domestic greenhouses. We conducted experiments on thermal environment measurement at two commercial greenhouses where hot water heating system is adopted. We analyzed heat transfer characteristics of hot water heating pipes and heat emission per unit length of heating pipes was presented. The average air temperature in two greenhouses was controlled to 16.3oC and 14.6oC during the experiment, respectively. The average water temperature in heating pipes was 52.3oC and 45.0oC, respectively. Experimental results showed that natural convection heat transfer coefficient of heating pipe surface was in the range of 5.71~7.49W/m2 oC. When the flow rate in heating pipe was 0.5m/s or more, temperature difference between hot water and pipe surface was not large. Based on this, overall heat transfer coefficient of heating pipe was derived as form of laminar natural convection heat transfer coefficient in the horizontal cylinder. By modifying the equation of overall heat transfer coefficient, a formula for calculating the heat emission per unit length of hot water heating pipe was developed, which uses pipe size and temperature difference between hot water and indoor air as input variables. The results of this study were compared with domestic and foreign data, and it was found to be closest to JGHA data. The data of NAAS, BALLS and ASHRAE were judged to be too large. Therefore, in order to set up environmental design standards for domestic greenhouses, it is necessary to fully examine those data through further experiments.
Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a major disease that affects tomato plants widely. R. solanacearum is a soil born pathogen which limits the disease control measures. Therefore, breeding of resistant tomato variety to this disease is important. To identify the susceptible variety, degree of disease resistance has to be determined. In this study, micro sap flow sensor is used for accurate prediction of resistant degree. The sensor is designed to measure sap flow and water use in stems of plants. Using this sensor, the susceptibility to bacterial wilt disease can be identified two to three days prior to the onsite of symptoms after innoculation of R. solanacearum. Thus, this find of diagnosis approach can be utilized for the early detection of bacterial wilt disease.
This study was conducted to compare the effect of salicylic acid (SA), an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, and the 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) fumigation, to prevent fruit quality deterioration and physiological disorders during the shelf-life of Korea’s leading export grape variety ‘Campbell Early’. The berries treated with SA after 1- MCP fumigation (1-MCP+SA) showed a higher firmness value and titratable acidity than single treatment of SA or 1-MCP. The rate of shattered berry was high as 41.7% for 100ppm ethephon spray, 40.8% for 25μM SA, and 38.2% for 1,000ppb 1-MCP, but showing only 18.7% when the SA was applied after 1-MCP fumigation. The ratio of short brushes less than 1mm was largest at 74.3% for ethephon treatment, while 1-MCP+SA treatment was found to have the longest brush length among all treatments, with a 2-4mm ratio of 22.8% and a 4-6mm ratio of 27.9%. The weight of rachis was found to be the lowest at 2.3g in the ethephon treatment, and the reduction of rachis weight loss per cluster by 1-MCP+SA treatment was evident. In addition, 1-MCP+SA treatment were effective in mitigating stem browning and berry decay during the 16-day storage period at 19oC in this cultivar, so it is believed that they can be used as a practical post-harvest treatment in grape exportation.
In the summer season, natural ventilation is commonly used to reduce the inside air temperature of greenhouse when it rises above the optimal level. The greenhouse shape, vent design, and position play a critical role in the effectiveness of natural ventilation. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was employed to investigate the effect of different roof vent designs along with side vents on the buoyancy-driven natural ventilation. The boussinesq hypothesis was used to simulate the buoyancy effect to the whole computational domain. RNG K-epsilon turbulence model was utilized, and a discrete originates (DO) radiation model was used with solar ray tracing to simulate the effect of solar radiation. The CFD model was validated using the experimentally obtained greenhouse internal temperature, and the experimental and computed results agreed well. Furthermore, this model was adopted to compare the internal greenhouse air temperature and ventilation rate for seven different roof vent designs. The results revealed that the inside-to-outside air temperature differences of the greenhouse varied from 3.2 to 9.6oC depending on the different studied roof vent types. Moreover, the ventilation rate was within the range from 0.33 to 0.49 min-1. Our findings show that the conical type roof ventilation has minimum inside-to-outside air temperature difference of 3.2oC and a maximum ventilation rate of 0.49 min-1.
We analyzed the anthocyanin accumulation, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA) contents and metabolic genes expression in berry skins under high temperature (High T) at veraison, in order to investigate the cause of bad coloration of 'Kyoho' grape due to High T in summer season. The coloration of ‘Kyoho’ grapes was stopped by High T for 10 days from veraison, and the fruit quality was not affected except skin color. Total anthocyanin of skins was decreased by High T treatment and malvidin and peonidin were decreased compared to control. In berry skins, ABA content did not decrease by High T treatment, but it was rather higher than that of control. GA content was increased about two times compared to the control after 10 days of High T treatment, which caused decreased ratio of ABA/GA. Analysis of expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes showed that the early biosynthetic genes were not affected by High T and the expression of UFGT was decreased by temperature treatment. ABA biosynthetic gene expressions were not affected by High T and the expression of GA20ox1 and GA2ox1/2, which are known to regulate the biosynthesis and inactivation of GA, were increased and decreased by High T, respectively. Therefore, the bad coloration of ‘Kyoho’ grapes under the High T at veraison was due to inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis of skin, and it was suggested that the anthocyanin biosynthesis was controlled by the ratio of ABA and GA rather than ABA content.
With the recent accelerated policy-making and interests in new renewable energy, plans to develop and supply the new renewable energy have been devised across multiple regions in Korea. Solar energy, in particular, is being applied to small-scale power supply in provincial areas, as solar cells are used to convert solar energy into electric energy to produce electric power. Nonetheless, in the case of solar power plants, the need for a large stretch of land and considerable sum of financial support implies that the planning step should take into consideration the most suitable meteorological and geographical factors. In this study, the proxy variables of meteorological and geographical factors associated with solar energy were considered in analyzing the vulnerable areas regarding the photovoltaic power generation facility across the nation. GIS was used in the spatial analysis to develop a map for assessing the optimal location for photovoltaic power generation facility. The final vulnerability map developed in this study did not reveal any areas that exhibit vulnerability level 5 (very high) or 1 (very low). Jeollanam-do showed the largest value of vulnerability level 4 (high), while a large value of vulnerability level 3 (moderate) was shown by several administrative districts including Gwangju metropolitan city, Jeollabuk-do, Chungcheongbuk-do, and Gangwon- do. A value of vulnerability level 2 (low) was shown by the metropolitan cities including Daegu, Ulsan, and Incheon. When the 30 currently operating solar power plants were compared and reviewed, most were found to be in an area of vulnerability level 2 or 3, indicating that the locations were relatively suitable for solar energy. However, the limited data quantity for solar power plants, which is the limitation of this study, prevents the accuracy of the findings to be clearly established. Nevertheless, the significance of this study lies in that an attempt has been made to assess the vulnerability map for photovoltaic power generation facility targeting various regions across the nation, through the use of the GIS-based spatial analysis technique that takes into account the diverse meteorological and geographical factors. Furthermore, by presenting the data obtained for all regions across the nation, the findings of this study are likely to prove useful as the basic data in fields related to the photovoltaic power generation.
In this study, we conducted the hot box tests to compare the changes in thermal insulation for the four types of multi-layer thermal screens by the used period after collecting them from the greenhouses in the field when they were replaced at the end of their usage. The main materials for these four types of multi-layer thermal screens were matt georgette, non-woven fabrics, polyethylene (PE) foam, chemical cotton, etc. These materials were differently combined for each multi-layer thermal screen. We built specimens (70×70 cm) for each of these multi-layer thermal screens and measured the temperature descending rate, heat transmission coefficient, and thermal resistance for each specimen through the hot box tests. With regard to the material combinations of multi-layer thermal screens, thermal insulation can be increased by applying a multi-layered PE foam. However, it is considered that the multilayered PE foam significantly less contributes to heat-retaining than chemical wool that forms an air-insulating layer inside multi-layer thermal screens. For the suitable heat-retaining performance of multi-layer thermal screens, basically, materials with the function of forming an air-insulating layer such as chemical cotton should be contained in multi-layer thermal screens. The temperature descending rate, heat transmission coefficient, and thermal resistance of multi-layer thermal screens were appropriately measured through the hot box tests designed in this study. However, in this study, we took into consideration only the four kinds of multi-layer thermal screens due to difficulties in collecting used multi-layer thermal screens. This is the results obtained with relatively few examples and it is the limit of this study. In the future, more cases should be investigated and supplemented through related research.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of LED and QD-LED (Quantum Dot) irradiation on seed germination, antioxidant ability, and microbial growth, during red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprouts cultivation. Irradiated light was blue, red, blue + red and blue + red + far red (QD-LED) lights, and the controls were a fluorescent lamp (FL), and dark condition. Germination rate of red radish was highest in the dark condition. The plant height and fresh weight of red radish sprouts that irradiated each light for 24 hrs after 7 days growing in dark condition, did not shown significantly difference among treatments. After 24 hrs of light irradiation, cotyledon green was best in blue + red light, and the red hypocotyl was excellent in blue light and QD-LED light. DPPH and phenol contents were high in dark and blue + red light treatment, and anthocyanin content was high in blue light and QDLED light. Total aerobic counts were similar in all treatments and did not show bactericidal effect, whereas E. coli count was lowest in QD-LED light treatment, and yeast and mold counts were lowest in FL only treatment. Results suggest that when red radish seeds were germinated in dark condition and cultivated for 7 days as sprouts, and then treated with blue light or QD-LED light for 24 hrs, the seeds produced good quality red radish sprouts with greenish cotyledon, reddish hypocotyl, high anthocyanin content, and lower level of E coli contamination.
The multi-layer insulating curtains used in the experiment was produced in six combinations using non-woven fabric containing aerogel and compared and analyzed by measuring heat flux and heat perfusion rates due to weight, thickness and temperature changes. Using silica aerogel, which have recently been noted as new material insulation, this study tries to produce a new combination of multi-layer insulating curtains that can complement the shortcomings of the multi-layer insulating curtains currently in use and maintain and improve its warmth, and analyze the thermal properties. The heat flux means the amount of heat passing per unit time per unit area, and the higher the value, the more heat passing through the multi-layer insulating curtain, and it can be judged that the heat retention is low. The weight and thickness of multi-layer insulation curtains were found to be highly correlated with thermal insulation. In particular, insulation curtains combined with aerogel meltblown non-woven fabric had relatively higher thermal insulation than insulation curtains with the same number of insulation materials. However, the aerogel meltblown non-woven fabric is weak in light resistance and durability, and there is a problem that the production process and aerogel are scattering. In order to solve this problems, the combination of expanded aerogel non-woven fabric and hollow fiber non-woven fabric, which are relatively simple manufacturing processes and excellent warmth, are suitable for use in real farms.