The study aimed to determine effects of light emitting diode (LED) and the ultraviolet radiation (UVA) light of plant factory on plant growth and ascorbic acid content of spinach (Spinacia oleracea cv. Shusiro). Plants were grown in a NFT (Nutrient Film Technique) system for 28 days after transplanting with fluorescent light (FL, control), LEDs and UVA (Blue+UVA (BUV), Red and Blue (R:B(2:1)) + UVA (RBUV), Red+UVA (RUV), White LED (W), Red and Blue (R:B(2:1)), Blue (B), Red (R)) under the same light intensity (130 μmol·m-2·s-1) and photoperiod (16/8h = day/night). All the light sources containing the R (R, RB, RUV, and RBUV) showed leaf epinasty symptom at 21 days after transplanting (DAT). Under the RUV treatment, the lengths of leaf and leaf petiole were significantly reduced and the leaf width was increased, lowering the leaf shape index, compared to the R treatment. Under the BUV, however, the lengths of leaf and leaf petiole were increased significantly, and the leaf number was increased compared to B. Under the RBUV treatment, the leaf length was significantly shorter than other treatments, while no significant difference between the RBUV and RB for the fresh and dry weights and leaf area. Dry weights at 28 days after transplanting were significantly higher in the R, RUV and BUV treatments than those in the W and FL. The leaf area was significantly higher under the BUV treatment. The ascorbic acid content of the 28 day-old spinach under the B was significantly higher, followed by the BUV, and significantly lower in FL and R. All the integrated data suggest that the BUV light seems to be the most suitable for growth and quality of hydroponically grown spinach in a plant factory.
This study aimed to examine the effects of different degrees of defoliation during harvest season on hydroponically cultured ‘Seolhyang’ strawberry's fruit characteristics, plant growth, and changes in nonstructural carbohydrates, and find an effective defoliation method. On November 29, 2013, some of the ‘Seolhyang’ leaves were nondefoliated and the others were defoliated remaining 9 and 5 leaves. The number of fruits and fruit weight were not significantly different in the first flower cluster but in the second, third, and fourth flower clusters decreased as the level of defoliation increased. The soluble solids content and acidity of fruits decreased in all the clusters as the level of defoliation increased. The leaf area and leaf dry weight of strawberry plant in all the treatment groups decreased from January to March and root dry weight sharply decreased during February. Thereafter, during April, the growth of plant increased. As defoliation increased, the dry weight of fruits, flower clusters, crowns, and roots decreased, and during late growing period, difference in dry weight according to the degree of defoliation was considerable. The content of carbohydrate was greater in the leaves than the fruits excepting January 30 and February 28, 2014 and in the case of strawberry plant that continuously produce fruits, the content of carbohydrate decreased in the leaves and roots. As defoliation increased, the content of carbohydrate in fruits, flower clusters, crowns, and roots decreased. Defoliation for strawberry plants is carefully done during harvest season. Twelve leaves during December and 14 leaves from January to March should be maintained, and in April when the number of leaves increases, old leaves should be defoliated.
Using virtual reality technology, users can learn and experience many interactions in virtual space like the actual physical space. This study was conducted to develop air flow simulator that allows farmers and consultants to consult air flow through VR devices by creating a greenhouse or pigpen model. It can help educate farmers about the importance of ventilation effects for agricultural facilities. We proposed CFD visualization system by building a virtual reality environment and constructing database of CFD and structure of agricultural facilities. After consultants can set up situations according to environmental conditions, the users experience the visualized air flow of agricultural facility according to the ventilation effects. Also it can provide a quantified environmental distribution in the agricultural facility. Currently, the CFD data in agricultural facilities are established during winter and summer. In order to experience various environmental conditions in the developed system, The experts need to run CFD data under various environmental conditions and register them in the system requirements.
We designed a system that can automatically collect, convey, and control cool air of 15oC-20oC containing carbon dioxide from a mushroom cultivation house to a strawberry plastic house. We recorded the temperature at various positions from July to August 2017. The average temperature of the green house during day and at night was maintained at 33oC and 26oC, respectively. In the moveable three-tier cylindrical bed, the average temperature around root was maintained at 26oC and 21oC during day and at night, respectively. On the high-bench in the green house, the temperature was maintained at 32oC and 30oC during day and at night, respectively. The carbon dioxide concentration was maintained around 800-1,600 ppm in the mushroom cultivation system and 400-800 ppm in the strawberry plastic house. The growth characteristics of the strawberry treated with moveable three-tier cylindrical bed were significantly different from those of the untreated high-bench bed. In addition, during the summer season, moveable three-tier cylindrical bed showed more tendency to increase in normal fruit number (NFN) and to decrease in defective fruit number (DFN) compare to the high-bench bed. Therefore, the moveable three-tier cylindrical bed showed a tendency to be more than 2 times higher yields than that of the high-bench bed. It was confirmed that everbearing strawberry cultivars could be cultivated in green house due to the cool air supply from the mushroom cultivation system in the summer season.
Recycling of drained nutrient solution in hydroponic cultivation of horticultural crops is important in the conservation of the water resources, reduction of production costs and prevention of environmental contamination. Objective of this research was to obtain the fundamental data for the development of a recirculation system of hydroponic solution in semi-forcing cultivation of ‘Bonus’ tomato. To achieve the objective, tomato plants were cultivated for 110 days and the contents of inorganic elements in plant, supplied and drained nutrient solution were analyzed when crop growth were in the flowering stage of 2nd to 8th fruiting nodes. The T-N content of the plants based on above-ground tissue were 4.1% at the flowering stage of 2nd fruiting nodes (just after transplanting), and gradually get lowered to 3.9% at the flowering stage of 8th fruiting nodes. The tissue P contents were also high in very early stage of growth and development and were maintained to similar contents in the flowering stage of 3rd to 7th fruiting nodes, but were lowed in 8th node stages. The tissue Ca, Mg and Na contents in early growth stages were lower than late growth stages and the contents showed tendencies to rise as plants grew. The concentration differences of supplied nutrient solution and drained solution in NO3-N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were not significant until 5 weeks after transplanting, but the concentration of those elements in drained solution rose gradually and maintained higher than those in supplied solution. The concentrations of B, Fe, and Na in drained solution were slightly higher in the early stages of growth and development and were significantly higher in the mid to late stages of growth than those in supplied solution. The above results would be used as a fundamental data for the correction in the inorganic element concentrations of drained solution for semi-forcing hydroponic cultivation of tomato.
Experiments of local cooling and heating on crown and root zone of forcing cultivation of strawberry ‘Seolhyang’ using heat pump and root pruning before planting were conducted. During the daytime, the crown surface temperature of the crown local cooling treatment was maintained at 18 ~ 22oC. This is suitable for flower differentiation, while those of control and root zone local cooling treatment were above 30oC. Budding rate of first flower clusters and initial yields were in the order of crown local cooling, root zone local cooling and control in root pruning plantlet and non pruning plantlet, except for purchase plantlet. Those of root pruning plantlet were higher than those of non pruning plantlet. These trends were evident in the yield of the first flower cluster until February 14, 2018, and the effect of local cooling and root pruning decreased from March 9, 2018. The budding rates of the second flower cluster according to the local cooling and root pruning treatments were not noticeable compared to first flower cluster but showed the same tendency as that of first flower cluster. In the heating experiment, root zone local heating(root zone 20oC+inside greenhouse 5oC) and crown local heating(crown 20oC+inside greenhouse 5oC) saved 59% and 65% of heating fuel, respectively, compared to control(inside greenhouse 9oC). Considering the electric power consumption according to the heat pump operation, the heating costs were reduced by 55% and 61%, respectively.
The effects of stigma removal from floral organ and treatment of auxin on those regions were evaluated on the fruit growth and quality in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). The removal of stigma reduced the fruit weight, fruit length, and fruit width, while fruit growth declined as the number of removed stigma increased. The removal of stigma also resulted in reduced fruit firmness, sugar content, and total anthocyanin content, and decreased value of Hunter a for red color and increased value of Hunter b for yellow. The number of seeds deceased as the regions of removed stigma increased. The treatment of auxin on the region of removed stigma improved fruit size, while it reduced fruit firmness, sugar content, and anthocyanin content. The delay in fruit ripening was observed from both stigma removal and auxin treatment. The incidence of malformed fruits increased as the regions with removed stigma increased. The treatment of auxin also promoted fruit malformation.
The present study investigated pine trees, which forms a major plantation species in Korea, with the objective of improving the survival rate of pine trees after planting. Growth responses and characteristics were assessed by controlling the level of fertilizer application, which is a basic controlling the growth of pine seedlings, to identify the optimal fertilization treatment. Pine tree seedlings were grown in 104 containers and were examined 8 weeks after planting. Stem height and were measured at 4-week intervals. In terms of fertilization treatment for 1-0 pine seedlings, the treatment group with gradually-increasing fertilizer concentration (500→1000→1000 →1000mg·L-1) had the biggest increase in stem height and diameter at the root. The survey results indicated that the increased concentration treatment group and the gradually-increasing concentration treatment group had more growth compared with that in the fixed concentration treatment group. The gradually-increasing concentration treatment group (500→1000→1000→1000mg·L-1) had the highest total dry matter production. Nine weeks after fertilization, the tips of the pine leaves turned yellow in the fixed concentration treatment group (3000mg·L-1). The same phenomenon was observed in the treatment group in which the concentration was increased to 2000mg·L-1, and in the gradually- increasing concentration treatment group, when the concentration was raised up to 2000mg·L-1. We concluded that the optimal fertilization conditions for producing healthy pine 1-0 seedlings involve fertilizing once a week with Multifeed 19 at 500mg·L-1 during the seedling period, Multifeed 19 at 1000mg·L-1 during the rapid growth period, and Multifeed 32 at 1000mg·L-1 during the maturation period.
This study was designed to examine the performance of an aspirated radiation shield(ARS), which was made at the investigator's lab and characterized by relatively easier making and lower costs based on survey data and reports on errors in its measurements of temperature and relative humidity. The findings were summarized as follows: the ARS and the Jinju weather station made measurements and recorded the range of maximum, average, and minimum temperature at 2.0~34.1oC, -6.1~22.2oC, –14.0~15.1oC and 0.4~31.5oC, -5.8~22.0oC, -14.1~16.3oC, respectively. There were no big differences in temperature measurements between the two institutions except that the lowest and highest point of maximum temperature was higher on the campus by 1.6oC and 2.6oC, respectively. The measurements of ARS were tested against those of a standard thermometer. The results show that the temperature measured by ARS was lower by –2.0oC or higher by 1.8oC than the temperature measured by a standard thermometer. The analysis results of its correlations with a standard thermometer reveal that the coefficient of determination was 0.99. Temperature was compared between fans and no fans, and the results show that maximum, average, and minimum temperature was higher overall with no fans by 0.5~7.6oC, 0.3~4.6oC and 0.5~3.9oC, respectively. The daily average relative humidity measurements were compared between ARS and the weather station of Jinju, and the results show that the measurements of ARS were a little bit higher than those of the Jinju weather station. The measurements on June 27, July 26 and 29, and August 20 were relatively higher by 5.7%, 5.2%, 9.1%, and 5.8%, respectively, but differences in the monthly average between the two institutions were trivial at 2.0~3.0%. Relative humidity was in the range of –3.98~+7.78% overall based on measurements with ARS and Assman's psychometer. The study analyzed correlations in relative humidity between the measurements of the Jinju weather station and those of Assman's psychometer and found high correlations between them with the coefficient of determination at 0.94 and 0.97, respectively.
Plant growth and morphology are affected by light environments. The morphogenesis and growth of the plants growing in plant factories are different from those grown under sunlight due to the effect of far-red light included in sunlight. The objective of this study was to compare the morphogenesis and growth of cucumber plants grown under artificial sunlight, high pressure sodium lamp (HPS), and HPS with additional far-red light (HPS+FR). The artificial solar (AS) with a spectrum similar to sunlight was manufactured using sulfur plasma lamp, incandescent lamp, and green-reducing optical film. HPS was used as a conventional electrical light source and far-red LEDs were added for HPS+FR. The optical properties of each light source was analyzed. The morphogenesis, growth, and photosynthetic rate were compared in each light source. The ratio of red to far-red lights and phytochrome photostationary state were similar in AS and HPS+FR. There were significant differences in morphology and growth between HPS and HPS+FR, but there were no significant differences between AS and HPS+FR. SPAD was highest in HPS, while photosynthetic rate was higher at AS and HPS. Although the photosynthetic rate in HPS+FR was lower than HPS, the growth was similar in AS. It was because canopy light interception was increased by longer petioles and larger leaf areas induced by FR. It is confirmed that the electrical light with additional far-red light induces similar photomorphogenesis and growth in sunlight spectrum. From the results, we expect that similar results will be obtained by adding far-red light to electrical light sources in plant factories.