Understanding the light environment in greenhouse cultivation and the light utilization characteristics of crops is important in the study of photosynthesis and transpiration. Also, as the plant grows, the form of light utilization changes. Therefore, this study aims to develop a light extinction coefficient model reflecting the plant growth. To measure the extinction coefficient, five pyranometers were installed vertically according to the height of the plant, and the light intensity by height was collected every second during the entire growing season. According to each growth stage in the early, middle, and late stages, the difference between the top and bottom light intensity tended to increase to 69%, 72%, and 81%. When leaf area index and plant height increased, the extinction coefficient decreased, and it showed an exponential decay relationship. Three-dimensional model reflecting the two growth indexes, the paraboloid had the lowest RMSE of 1.340 and the highest regression constant of 0.968. Through this study, it was possible to predict the more precise light extinction coefficient during the growing period of plants. Furthermore, it is judged that this can be utilized for predicting and analyzing photosynthesis and transpiration according to the plant height.
This study was conducted to develop a precision automatic irrigation system in a nursery by considering the problems and improvements of manual and the conventional automatic irrigation system. The amount of irrigated water between the conventional automatic irrigation system and manual irrigation was 28.7 ± 4.4 g and 14.2 ± 4.3 g, respectively, and the coefficient of variation was less than 30%. However, the coefficient of variation of the conventional automatic irrigation system of 15%, was higher than that of manual irrigation of 30%. The irrigation test using the developed uniform irrigation system attached with the nozzle of a spray angle 80° and most highest uniformity was at height 600 mm. And coefficient of variation of the irrigation uniformity at the center part was within 20%, but irrigation amount of the edge part was lower 50% and over compared to the center part. As a result of a tomato grafting seedling cultivation test using the developed uniform irrigation system, the average plant height of seedling at the edge part was 28 mm but plant height at the center part was higher as 72 mm. Therefore, it was necessary to apply additional irrigation device at the edge part. The irrigation uniformity of the edge concentrated irrigation system was investigated that the irrigation amount of the edge part was irrigated by more than 50% compared with the center part, and coefficient of variation of the irrigation amount at the center part was less than 30%. As a result of a cucumber grafting seedling cultivation test using the edge concentrated irrigation system, the plant height of seedlings in the edge and central part of cultivation bed were 24% and 26%, respectively, so irrigation uniformity was higher then the uniform irrigation system. In order to improve the uniformity of seedlings, it is necessary to adjust the height of boom according to the growth of the seedling by installing a distance sensor in the overhead watering and boom irrigation system.
Roses are one of the most produced flower species in the world, and cut roses are produced in the greenhouses all year round. Recently, due to the increase in the temperature in the greenhouses in summer, the quality of cut roses is seriously deteriorated, such as shortening the stem length. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the growing seasons on the qualities of cut roses and also to test the effect of cooling at night in high temperature season on the cut flower qualities of roses. Comparing the qualities and yields of cut roses for each season, the major cut flower qualities such as flower stem length, stem diameter and fresh weight were statistically significantly decreased in roses (‘Pink Beauty’ and ‘Pink Shine’) produced in summer. The yields didn’t show a statistically significant difference in both cultivars. Investigating the cut flower qualities, the flower stem length increased by 15% for ‘Pink Beauty’, 11% for ‘Ararat’, and 12% for ‘Pink Shine’ when treated with cooling at night in warm season than the untreated control. In addition, when treated with cooling at night in warm season, the fresh weight of all three cultivars increased by 20-30% statistically significantly than conventionally cultivated control. It is expected that cooling at night in warm season will be helpful to improve the cut flower quality deterioration in summer.
Sucrose (suc) is a disaccharide that consists of glucose (glu) and fructose (fru). It is a carbohydrate source that acts as a nutrient molecule and a molecular signal that regulates gene expression and alters metabolites. This study aimed to evaluate whether suc-specific signaling induces an increase in bioactive compounds by exogenous suc absorption via roots or whether other factors, such as osmotic stress or biotic stress, are involved. To compare the osmotic stress induced by suc treatment, 4-week-old cultured mugwort plants were subjected to Hoagland nutrient solution with 10 mM, 30 mM, and 50 mM of suc or mannitol (man) for 3 days. Shoot fresh weight in suc and man treatments was not significantly different from the control. Both man and suc treatments increased the content of bioactive compounds in mugwort, but they displayed different enhancement patterns compared to the suc treatments. Mugwort extract treated with suc 50 mM effectively protected HepG2 liver cells damaged by ethanol and t-BHP. To compare the biotic stress induced by suc treatment, 3-week-old mugwort plants were subjected to microorganism and/or suc 30 mM with Hoagland nutrient solution. Microorganisms and/or suc 30 mM treatments showed no difference about the shoot fresh weight. However, sugar content in mugwort treated with suc 30 mM and microorganism with suc 30 mM treatment was significantly higher than that of the control. Suc 30 mM and microorganism with suc 30 mM were effective in enhancing bioactive compounds than microorganism treatment. These results suggest that mugwort plants can absorb exogenous suc via roots and the enhancement of bioactive compounds by suc treatment may result not from osmotic stress or biotic stress because of microorganism, but by suc-specific signaling.
Growth modeling in plant factories can not only control stable production and yield, but also control environmental conditions by considering the relationship between environmental factors and plant growth rate. In this study, using the expolinear function, we modeled perilla [Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.] cultivated in a plant factory. Perilla growth was investigated 12 times until flower bud differentiation occurred after planting under light intensity, photoperiod, and the ratio of mixed light conditions of 130 μmol·m-2·s-1, 12/12 h, red:green:blue (7:1:2), respectively. Additionally, modeling was performed to predict dry and fresh weights using the expolinear function. Fresh and dry weights were strongly positively correlated (r = 0.996). Except for dry weight, fresh weight showed a high positive correlation with leaf area, followed by plant height, number of leaves, number of nodes, leaf length, and leaf width. When the number of days after transplanting, leaf area, and plant height were used as independent variables for growth prediction, leaf area was found to be an appropriate independent variable for growth prediction. However, additional destructive or non-destructive methods for predicting growth should be considered. In this study, we created a growth model formula to predict perilla growth in plant factories.
There are many different types of cultivation in tomatoes for year-round production. One of them, semi-forcing cultivation is characterized by growing seedlings in winter season. If grafted seedlings are used in winter season that energy cost can be reduced, because they have tolerance to cold stress. This study was conducted to analyze the rootstock performance by measuring the growth, yield, and leaf-macronutrient content of cherry tomatoes grown in semi-forcing hydroponics. Three domestic rootstocks ‘HSF4’, ‘21LM’, ‘21A701’, and a control cultivar ‘B-blocking’ were grafted onto jujube-shaped cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) commercial cultivar ‘Nonari’. The total yield per plant with grafted cherry tomato ‘21A701’ was 3,387g, which was 11%, 22% and 24% higher than the yield with ‘B-blocking’, non-grafted one and ‘HSF4’. The stem diameter of ‘21A701’ was thick with 8.26mm, whereas non-grafted one was thin with 7.23mm at 160 days after transplanting. The flowering position of ‘21LM’ was 34% and 47% higher than the flowering position of ‘B-blocking’ and non-grafted one at 153 days after transplanting. The NO3-N concentration in petiole sap of ‘21LM’ was the highest with 1,746mg·L-1 and non-grafted one and ‘HSF4’ were the lowest with 1,252mg·L-1 and 1,245mg·L-1 at 167 days after transplanting. The results indicated that rootstock/scion combinations in cherry tomatoes can affect the plant growth, yield, and the concentration of different NO3-N in leaves at the late growth stage. Both ‘21A701’ and ‘21LM’ have vigorous root system, which influence the growth and yield increased.
High-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps have been widely used as a useful supplemental light source to emit sufficient photosynthetically active radiation and provide a radiant heat, which contribute the heat requirement in greenhouses. The objective of this study to analyze the thermal characteristics of HPS lamp and thermal behavior in supplemented greenhouse, and evaluate the performance of a horizontal leaf temperature of sweet pepper plants using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. We simulated horizontal leaf temperature on upper canopy according to three growth stage scenarios, which represented 1.0, 1.6, and 2.2 plant height, respectively. We also measured vertical leaf and air temperature accompanied by heat generation of HPS lamps. There was large leaf to air temperature differential due to non-uniformity in temperature. In our numerical calculation, thermal energy of HPS lamps contributed of 50.1% the total heat requirement on Dec. 2022. The CFD model was validated by comparing measured and simulated data at the same operating condition. Mean absolute error and root mean square error were below 0.5, which means the CFD simulation values were highly accurate. Our result about vertical leaf and air temperature can be used in decision making for efficient thermal energy management and crop growth.
The external weather conditions including temperature and wind speed in the Saemangeum reclaimed land is different from that of the inland, affecting the internal environment of the greenhouse. Therefore, it is important to select an appropriate covering material considering the insulation effect according to the type and characteristics of the covering material considering the weather condition in the Saemangeum reclaimed land. A hexahedral insulation chamber was designed to evaluate the insulation efficiency of each glass-clad material in the outside weather condition in reclaimed land. In order to evaluate the insulation effect of each covering material, a radiator was installed and real-time power consumption was monitored. 16-mm PC (polycarbonate), 16-mm PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate), 4-mm greenhouse glass, and 16-mm double-layered glass were used as the covering materials of the chamber. In order to understand the effect of the external wind directions, the windward and downwind insulation properties were evaluated. As a result of comparing the thermal insulation effect of each greenhouse cover material to single-layer glass, the thermal insulation effect of double-layer glass was 16.9% higher, while PMMA and PC were 62.5% and 131.2% higher respectively. On average the wind speed on the windward side was 53.1% higher than that on the lee-wind side, and the temperature difference between the inside and outside of the chamber at the wind ward side was found to be 52.0% larger than that on the lee ward side. During the experiment period, the overall heating operation time for PC was 39.2% lower compared to other insulation materials. Showing highest energy efficiency, and compared to PC, single-layer glass power consumption was 37.4% higher.
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants use surplus CO2 generated by cooling and heating at night when ventilation is not needed in a greenhouse. Schlumbergera truncata ‘Pink Dew’ is a multi–flowering cactus that needs more phylloclades for high–quality production. This study examined photosynthetic characteristics by the phylloclade levels of S. truncata in a growth chamber and a greenhouse for use of night CO2 enrichment. The CO2 uptake rate of the S. truncata’s top phylloclade in a growth chamber exhibited a C3 pattern, and the second phylloclade exhibited a C3 –CAM pattern. The CO2 uptake rate of the top phylloclade in a greenhouse showed a negative value both day and night, but those of the second phylloclade exhibited a CAM pattern. The stomatal conductance and water–use efficiency (WUE) of S. truncata at both the top and second phylloclades were higher in a growth chamber than in a greenhouse. The WUE of S. truncata in a growth chamber and a greenhouse was higher at the second phylloclade, which is a CAM pattern compared with those of the top phylloclade. The daily total net CO2 uptake of S. truncata was higher in a growth chamber than in a greenhouse. The daily total net CO2 uptake of S. truncata at the second phylloclade had the highest value of 155 mmol·m–2·d–1 in a growth chamber. The night total CO2 uptake of S. truncata at the second phylloclade was 3–fold higher in a growth chamber than in a greenhouse. S. truncata’s second phylloclade exhibited a CAM pattern that uptake CO2 at night, and the second phylloclade, was more mature than the top phylloclade. A multi–flowering cactus S. truncata ‘Pink Dew’ efficiently uptake night surplus CO2 in the proper environmental condition with matured phylloclade.
Melons, a rich source of vitamins and fibers, are commonly grown in the soil. Hydroponic cultivation could improve yield and quality of melon and selection of substrate volume and the kind of substrates is important for hydroponic cultivation of melons. This study investigated the effect on melon growth according to volume of granular rockwool and substrates of coir and rockwool slab. ‘Geumsegye’ melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Geumsegye) was cultivated hydroponically according to volume of granular rockwool to 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 L, and was also cultivated using coir and rockwool slabs. Logistic model was applied to estimate the growth characteristics of melons such as plant height, leaf length, leaf width, and the characteristics of fruit. The growth characteristics of melons were significantly increased at 4.0 L compared to those grown of 1.0 L volume of on granular rockwool, and the results were the highest in coir and rockwool slabs. Melons grown in rockwool slabs showed the largest fruit fresh weight, fruit length, and fruit width. During hydroponic cultivation, growth characteristics of melon appropriate at the 4.0 L volume of granular rockwool, and the highest at coir and rockwool slabs. This study provides a basis for understanding the effect of root zone environment to the growth characteristics and fruit quality of non-netted melon.