This study was conducted to develop a system and an control algorithm for control the environment of a plant factory. The greenhouse control system for environmental control was largely composed of a computer and a PLC. The screen of control program was composed of a greenhouse figure which was included machinery and equipments for greenhouse, the graph of environmental factors of inside greenhouse and the image of greenhouse. In order to reduce temperature change, the operation time of ventilation window was changed by 3 stage according to difference between a target and present temperature. When is heating, a temperature variation was shown to be 16.7±0.8℃. When is cooling, a temperature variation was shown to be 23.1±0.6℃. When is humidifing, a humidity variation was shown to be 39.3±1.6℃ %RH. An environmental control system and a control algorithm were proved that it was shown a good performance in a control accuracy. So a computer control system should be adapted to a control system of a greenhouse and a plant factory.
This research was conducted to determine the plant growth and nutrient contents of potted chrysanthemum 'Lima Honey' as influenced by application rate of dolomite in three root media, peatmoss+vermiculite (1:1, v/v), peatmoss+composted rice hall (1:1, v/v), and peatmoss+composted pine bark (1:1, v/v). All root media contained polyacrylic acid sodium salt (PASS) at a rate of 4.5g L-1. In crop growth at 40 and 80 days after transplanting, elevated application rates of dolomite up to 6.0g L-1 in three root media increased fresh and dry weights per plant. But the treatment of 9.0g L-1 had less fresh and dry weights than those of 6.0g L-1. Tissue phosphorus content decreased and those of Ca and Mg increased by the elevated application rates of dolomite. Elevated application rates of dolomite in three root media resulted in the increase of pH, EC, and the concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg at 43 days after transplanting. Those at 80 days after transplanting were also increased, but the differences among treatments were less significant as compared to those at 43 days after transplanting. From the results of dry weight in potted chrysanthemum 'Lima Honey', the proper application rate of dolomite to three root media containing PASS at a rate of 4.5g L-1 were 6.0g L-1.
This research was conducted to determine the plant growth and nutrient contents of potted chrysanthemum 'Lima Honey' as influenced by application rate of fused superphosphate (FSSP) in three root media, peatmoss+vermiculite (1:1, v/v; PV), peatmoss+composted rice hall (1:1, v/v; PR), and peatmoss+composted pine bark (1:1, v/v; PB). All root media contained polyacrylic acid sodium salt at a rate of 4.5g L-1. The treatment of 1.4g L-1 in PV and those of 0.7g L-1 in PR and PB had the greatest fresh and dry weights in each root medium at both 43 and 80 days after transplanting. Elevated application rates of FSPP increased tissue contents of N, P, and K at both 43 and 80 days after transplanting in PV medium. However, the differences in tissue contents of N, P and K in PR medium were less significant among treatments of FSPP. The pre-planting FSPP also less affected the tissue contents of nutrients at 80 days after transplanting as compared to those at 43 days after transplanting. Elevated application rates of FSPP in PV medium increased EC and the concentrations of NO3, P2O5, K, Ca, and Mg in soil solution of root media at 43 days after transplanting. The EC in PV medium at 80 days after transplanting was higher than that at 43 days after transplanting. The EC in all root media at 80 days after transplanting was not different among treatments of FSPP.
Objective of this research was to determine the effect of application rate of a slow release fertilizer (SRF) in three root media, peatmoss+vermiculite (1:1, v/v; PV), peatmoss+composted rice hall (1:1, v/v; PR), and peatmoss+composted pine bark (1:1, v/v; PB), on growth and nutrient contents of potted chrysanthemum 'Lima Honey'. All media contained polyacrylic acid sodium salt at a rate of 4.5g L-1. The fresh and dry weights at 43 days after transplanting did not show statistical differences among treatments in each root media. Elevated application rate of SRF increased fresh and dry weights at 80 days after transplanting in PV and PB media, but not in PR medium. Elevated application rates of SRF resulted in the increase of tissue phosphorus content and decrease of tissue Ca, Na, and Zn contents at both 43 and 80 days after transplanting. Elevated application rates of SRF resulted in the decrease of pH and increase of EC and concentrations of NO3- and P2O53-, K, Ca, and Mg in the soil solution of PV and PR media. The trends of those in PR media were also similar except NO3-. The differences among treatments in EC at 80 days after transplanting were less significant as compared to those at 43 days after transplanting in three media.
This studies were carried out in summer season to increase high temperature tolerance using hydrogen peroxide treatments on cucumber in greenhouse. The water stress of cucumber in greenhouse by the hydrogen peroxide treatments showed as control〉250 mM〉500 mM treatments in order. The photosynthesis rate of cucumber at 30℃ did not show difference with each hydrogen peroxide treatment in temperature controlled greenhouse. However, the photosynthesis rate of cucumber in the control and hydrogen peroxide treatments at 40℃ was significantly different. The photosynthesis rate of cucumber in combined treatment with 1,000 mg·L-1 CO2 supply and hydrogen peroxide was also higher than control, however, there was no different of photosynthesis in 250 mM and 500 mM treatment. The value of Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo of chlorophyll fluorescent in 500 mM hydrogen peroxide treatment at 40℃ was highest. Also the activity of POD, the antioxidant enzyme, was higher with high hydrogen peroxide concentration than the other treatments. The high temperature limits for growth were 43℃ in the control, 44℃ in the 250 mM and 46℃ in the 500 mM according to analyze chlorophyll fluorescent Fo. The high temperature tolerance in cucumber increased approximately 3℃ by the hydrogen peroxide treatments under this experiment conditions.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of diurnal alternation of nutrient solution salinity on growth and fruit quality of tomatoes (Lycoperisicon esculentum cv. 'House momotaro') hydroponically grown in root intercept bag-NFT (RIB-NFT) system. Plant height was the lowest in the high concentration during daytime (6/1 dS m-1, day/night). Yield was very high in the concentration of 1/1 dS m-1, it decreased with increasing the concentration of nutrient Yield was higher at low concentration (4/1 dS m-1) at nighttime compared to the same concentration (4/4 dS m-1) at daytime and nighttime, and the reverse (1/4 dS m-1) was similar to the control (perlite culture). Yield was greatly reduced by higher concentration at daytime than nighttime, and the decrease was alleviated by lower concentration at nighttime. With increasing the concentration of nutrient solution during daytime, sugar content of tomato fruit was increased, but yield was decreased. In the other experiment, tomato plants were hydropoically cultured in NFT system diurnally alternated between Aichi's solution and Ca(NO3)2 solution. Ca(NO3)2 solution was supplied for 4 hours from 10:00 to 14:00 at daytime and from 22:00 to 2:00 at nighttime, respectively, and Aichi's solution was supplied for the time except the 4 hours. Ca content of leaves and sugar content of fruit were increased by supplying Ca(NO3)2 solution at daytime compared to nighttime, but plant growth was greatly suppressed by supplying Ca(NO3)2 solution with the concentration of 4 dS m-1(4/4Ca dS m-1) at nighttime.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the nutrition absorption pattern in the growth stage and develope the optimal nutrient solution hydroponically grown the cherry tomato 'Koko' in closed substrate culture system with the nutrient solution of National Horticultural Research Station in Japan into 1/2S, 1S, and 2S. When plant was grown in 1/2S, the growth and yield were high and the pH and EC in the root zone were stable. Suitable composition of nutrient solution for cherry tomato was NO3-N 6.8, PO4-P 2.7, K 3.2, Ca 3.6 and Mg 1.1 me L-1 in the early growth stage, NO3-N 7.3, PO4-P 2.2, K 3.7, Ca 3.6;and Mg 1.1 me L-1 in the late growth stage by calculating a rate of nutrient and water uptake. To estimate the suitability for the nutrient solution in a development of cherry tomato developed by Wongkwang university in Korea (WU), plant was grown in perlite substrate supplied with different solution and strengths(S) by research station for greenhouse vegetable and floriculture in the Netherlands (Proefstation voor tuinbouw onder glas th Mssldwijk; PTG) of 1/2S, 1S, and 2S, respectively. The growth was good at the PTG and WU 2S in the early stage and the PTG of 1S and WU of 1S and 2S in the late stage. The highest yield of cherry tomato obtained in the WU of 2S. pH and EC in root zone of WU of 2S were stable during the early and late growth stage. Therefore when cherry tomato plant was grown in WU of 2S of EC 1.6~2.0 dS m-1in the nutrient solution, not only stable growth and yield but also fertilizer reduction can be obtained than that of PTG.
The objective of this study was to examine effect of ethylene removal apparatus on fruit quality of 'Niitaka' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) in case of a double storage of apples and pears in a storage room. Ethylene and carbon dioxide concentration were efficiently decreased by the ethylene removal apparatus. Fruit weight loss was high at double storage of apples and pears (DAP) in a storage room compared with storage of pears. Fruit core browning was 5~22.5% at the fruits in DAP, but as setting ethylene removal apparatus it was not occurred till 90 days after storage. Soluble solids content and fruit peel hardness were not different among the treatments. Accordingly, a double storage of apples and pears in a storage room is possible as setting ethylene removal apparatus.
This study was conducted to anticipate nitrate reduction state in tree through measurement of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and investigate the effect of nitrogen concentrations (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg L-1) on growth, the nitrogen content of various tissue, and NRA of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) seedlings in sand culture. Nutrient solutions used in this experiment were adjusted to pH 6.5 and fixed the ratio of ammonium and nitrate to 1:3 and trickle-irrigated 3 times a day. Tree height and dry weight of various organs in seedlings were higher in low nitrogen concentration (100 and 200 mg L-1) than in high nitrogen concentration (400 and 600 mg L-1). The shoot growth in 600 mg L-1 was extremely poor by nitrogen over supply. Increasing the nitrogen concentration, the concentration of nitrate-N in leaves and roots were insignificantly changed but that of stems increased. The accumulation of total and reduced nitrogen in all organs with increasing concentrations of nitrogen supply were increased at 30 days after treatment but those of all organs at 60 and 90 days after treatment were highest in 600 mg L-1, whereas there were no significant changes among other nitrogen concentration. The in vivo (+NO3-) NRA of all organs did not relate to nitrogen concentration but the in vivo (-NO3-) NRA of leaves except roots increased with increasing the nitrogen concentration. Therefore, the proper nitrogen concentration to promote growth and nitrate reduction of pear tree was 200 mg L-1.
This study was conducted to determine the influence of postharvest dipping treatment with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on ethylene production and composition of non-cellulosic neutral sugars in cell walls of 'Tsugaru' apple fruits during storage. Fruits were harvested on August 20, soaked in AVG 50 and 75 mg L-1 solution for 5 minutes, and stored in cold storage chamber at 0±1℃ for 60 days. Fruit quality factor, ethylene productions, and cell wall component changes were investigated at 20 days interval. As a result, the fruit firmness and acid content were much higher in AVG treated fruits than those of untreated one during 60 days of cold storage. Ethylene production of AVG treated fruits was reduced to the level of 1/10 compared with untreated one. As to the change of non-cellulosic neutral sugars in the cell walls of 'Tsu- garu' fruits, the major sugar was arabinose and galactose in water, CDTA and Na2CO3 soluble fractions. The content of arabinose and galactose in untreated fruits increased as the softening of fruits was in progress, but the fruits treated with AVG showed a little change during storage, so it is predicted that these two cell wall compositional sugars were not solubilized by the treatment of AVG. Accordingly, the marketability of 'Tsu- garu' fruits could remarkably increase when soaking the fruits in AVG solution after harvest.
A hypertonic solution of sorbitol was used to precondition Douglas-fir and Western hemlock plug seedlings to improve desiccation resistance. Seedlings were preconditioned by soaking their root balls in water, -0.75 or -1.50 MPa sorbitol solution for 22 hr, and then exposed to desiccation conditions for 8 days. During the desiccation period, a transpirational water loss was significantly reduced by the sorbitol preconditioning, with its effect positively depending on concentration. This preconditioning-induced reduction in water loss was mainly caused by the decline in needle stomatal conductance. Sorbitol-induced stomatal control was more closely associated with reduction in plant water potential, rather than increase in abscisic acid concentrations. After rehydration of stressed-plants, most of the preconditioned seedlings with sorbitol were survived, while only 35% of Douglas-fir and 28% of Western hemlock seedlings treated with water were alive. The post-growth was significantly greater in the preconditioned seedlings than only water-treated seedlings. These results suggested that the earlier stomatal control with sorbitol-facilitated preconditioning could play a role in improving desiccation resistance of evergreen woody plants at transplanting in the field where water supply is limited or dry conditions are prevailing.
These studies were carried out to investigate the quality of green tea processed by different pan-firing hand rolling and to select the best conditions during the procedure of green tea processing the results were as follows. At harvestion tea plant leaf, tea plants had 4 leaves. each leaf size was 7.5 cm'§quare2.6 cm, and weight of 100 buds 46.6 g. The increase of pan-fired time decreased in the moisture content and yield of green tea. After processing green tea, 5 times pan-fired one had much more contents of total nitrogen (T-N:5.31%), caffeine (2.00%) and total amino acid (T.A.A. : 3,046 mg%) and less content of tannin (13.41%) than the other treatments. but 3 times pan-fired one had the highest contents of vitamin C (204.3 mg%) and chlorophyll (365.0 mg%) among three kinds pan-firing method. Sixteen kinds of free amino acid including theanine as a good taste component of pan-fired green tea were isolated and measured by HPLC. Free amino acid (FAA) contents were in the range of 2,683~2,925 mg% and among various pan-firing methods, 5 tims pan-fired one had the highest content of F.A.A. Among these free amino acids, theanine occupied as much as 56.4~61.3% of F.A.A. Lightness, yellowness and redness of 5 times pan-fired green tea were middle value among three different treatments. Besides, it gained the highest score of sensory evaluation among them. These above results suggested that 5 times pan-fired green tea was considered to be the best level as pan-firing times of green tea processing.