Strawberry is a stand-out cultivating fruit in Korea. The optimum production of strawberry is highly dependent on growing environment. Smart farm technology, and automatic monitoring and control system maintain a favorable environment for strawberry growth in greenhouses, as well as play an important role to improve production. Moreover, physiological parameters of strawberry plant and it is surrounding environment may allow to give an idea on production of strawberry. Therefore, this study intends to build a machine learning model to predict strawberry’s yield, cultivated in greenhouse. The environmental parameter like as temperature, humidity and CO2 and physiological parameters such as length of leaves, number of flowers and fruits and chlorophyll content of ‘Seolhyang’ (widely growing strawberry cultivar in Korea) were collected from three strawberry greenhouses located in Sacheon of Gyeongsangnam-do during the period of 2019-2020. A predictive model, Lasso regression was designed and validated through 5-fold cross-validation. The current study found that performance of the Lasso regression model is good to predict the number of flowers and fruits, when the MAPE value are 0.511 and 0.488, respectively during the model validation. Overall, the present study demonstrates that using AI based regression model may be convenient for farms and agricultural companies to predict yield of crops with fewer input attributes.
This study was carried out to investigate the proper wattage and installation distance for the efficient use of nano-carbon fiber infrared heating lamp (NCFIHL), a heating device advantageous for heating energy saving, when the production of watermelon plug seedlings in the plug seedling nursery in winter season. Six small beds were divided into plastic film, and 700 W and 900 W nano-carbon fiber infrared heating lamps were installed at 100 cm above the bed. 1 lamp at central (control), 60 cm interval (2 lamps), and 40 cm interval (3 lamps) heating lamps were installed in each bed inside the greenhouse. All treatments, except the control, were set to keep the night air temperature at 20℃ after lighting the NCFIHL. The leaf temperature showed a tendency to increase fast as the install distance was narrow. The leaf length and leaf width tended to increase as the installation distance of the 700 W heating lamp was narrow. The compactness was high in 700 W heating lamp with 40 cm of installation distance. Therefore, in consideration of maintaining the set temperature at night, installing 700 W electric lamps at 40 cm was an efficient power and installation distance for watermelon grafted seedlings considering economic feasibility.
Uniform scions and rootstocks should be produced to ensure grafting success. Light quality is an important environmental factor that regulates seedling growth. The effects of warm- and cool-white light emitting diode (LED) ratios on seedling growth were investigated. Scions and rootstocks of cucumber, tomato, and watermelon were grown in a closed transplant production system using LED as the sole lighting source. The LED treatments were W1C0 (only warm-white), W1C1 (warm-white: cool-white = 1:1), W3C1 (warm-white: cool-white = 3:1), and W5C2 (warm-white: cool-white = 5:2). The seedlings grown in W1C1 had the shortest hypocotyls, and the seedlings grown in W1C0 had the longest hypocotyls among the three tested vegetables. The hypocotyls of watermelon scions, watermelon rootstocks, and tomato rootstocks were shortest in W1C1, followed by those in W3C1, W5C2, and W1C0, but there was no significant difference between W3C1 and W5C2, which remained the same as the ratio of cool-white LEDs increased. In addition, tomato scions had the first and second longest hypocotyls in W1C0 and W3C1, respectively, and the shortest hypocotyls in W5C2 and W1C1, along with W5C2 and W1C1, although the difference was not significant. The stem diameter was highest in W1C0 except for tomato seedlings and rootstocks of watermelon. The shoot fresh weight of scions and rootstocks of cucumber and watermelon and the root fresh weight of cucumber scions were lowest in W1C1. These results indicated that different ratios of LED lighting sources had a strong effect on the hypocotyl elongation of seedlings.
The attraction effects of light emitting diode (LED) trap to Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera litura adults were evaluated in greenhouse and compared with those of no light trap, which is typical used in commercial trap. At this time, in order to attract these two species of moths, sex pheromone traps were installed at the top side according to the degree of tomato growth inside the tomato cultivation greenhouse around the LED trap. In addition, two types of light-emitting traps (420 nm, 470 nm) were installed in the greenhouse at 1/40 m2, respectively. Also two sex pheromone were installed inside of the greenhouse according to the height of the tomato plants. 10 days later, Blue-light trap(BLB, 470 nm wavelength) was 3.1－3.5 times more attractive than Violet-light trap(VLB, 420 nm wavelength) in S. exigua (105.6 ± 7.3) and S. litura (42.0 ± 3.1) respectively, whereas the no-light trap was little attractive to S. exigua (33.7 ± 2.8) and S. litura (12.0 ± 1.5). On the other hand, after the installation of the sex pheromone trap and the LED trap, there was no damage to S. litura (Fabricius) and S. exigua in the pesticide-free area, indicating a high possibility of control. At this time, the operating cost of the two types of LED traps was 80 won/m2 per unit area, and it was confirmed that both types of moths could be controlled. In addition, as a result of confirming the number of two types of moths caught in the sexual pheromone trap and two types of LED traps after 4 months, it was judged that eco-friendly control was possible as more than 373 moths/trap were attracted to the two types of moths.
This study was conducted to determine the changes in ginsenosides content according to additional UV-A, and UV-B LED irradiation before harvesting the ginseng sprouts. One-year-old ginseng seedlings (n=100) were transplanted in a tray containing a ginseng medium. The ginseng sprouts were grown for 37 days at a temperature of 20°C (24h), a humidity of 70%, and an average light intensity of 80 μmol·m-2·s-1 (photoperiod; 24h) in a container-type plant factory. Ginseng sprouts were then transferred to a custom chamber equipped with UV-A (370 nm; 12.90 W·m-2) and UV-B (300 nm; 0.31 W·m-2) LEDs and treated for 3 days. Growth parameters and ginsenoside contents in shoot and root were conducted by harvesting on days 0 (control), 1, 2, and 3 of UV treatments, respectively. The growth parameters showed non-significant differences between the control and the UV treatments (wavelengths or the number of days). Ginsenoside contents of the shoot was highly improved by 186% in UV-A treatment compared to the control in 3 days of the treatment time. The ginsenoside contents of the roots was more improved in UV-A 1-day treatment and UV-B 3-day treatment, compared to the control by 171% and 160%, respectively. As a result of this experiment, it is thought that UV LED irradiation before harvesting can produce sprout ginseng with high ginsenoside contents in a plant factory.
To investigate the effects of ozonated water concentration and soaking time on adventitious root formation of willow, we studied the efficiency of root cuttings in the revegetation technology of biological engineering of willows. The ozonated water concentrations were used for 5 minutes and 2 hours at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 ppm by soaking method and then the shoot characteristics were observed. The number and length of adventitious roots were determined. The results indicated that 20 ppm of ozonated water for 2 hours and 1 ppm of ozonated water for 5 minutes resulted in leaves turned wither away and no adventitious root production. Considering the appearance, number and length of the adventitious root, soaking willow cuttings into the ozonated water with dissolved ozone concentration, 5 ppm for 2 hours and 10-15 ppm for 5 minutes were suitable for generating adventitious roots.
연구는 참외 재배 지에서 흰가루병, 담배가루이 및 두점박이응애가 동시에 발생하였을 때 45, 40, 35°C (대조구)의 온도에서 측창으로 환기 처리 시, 온실 내 온 ․ 습도의 변화, 병충해 발생과 잎말림, 그리고 개화조절에 미 치는 효과를 검토하였다. 3월 3일 ‘히든파워’ 대목에 접붙여진 ‘알찬꿀’ 참외를 40cm 간격으로 격리상에 심었고, 위 에 언급한 병해충이 모든 처리구에서 발생한 6월 18일부터 7월 13일까지 처리하였다. 온실의 온도는 맑은 날에는 설정 온도 지점까지 증가되었고, 45°C 환기 처리에서 고온 고습이 약 9시간 동안 유지되었다. 주간 최고 기온과 최 저 상대습도 차이는 45°C 환기 처리에서 가장 높았다. 환기 처리 11일 후에는 흰가루병과 두점박이응애 피해가 45°C 환기 처리에서 거의 회복되었지만 40°C와 35°C에서는 그렇지 않았다. 처리 14일 후, 담배가루이와 두점박이 응애 밀도는 45°C에서 유의하게 감소하였으나 흰가루병 증상은 유의하게 감소하지는 않았다. 잎말림은 고온에서 유발되었으나 45°C에서도 심하지 않았다. 처리 26일 후, 새로 나온 줄기의 15 마디의 개화수를 조사한 결과, 45°C에 서 암꽃이 전혀 나오지 않았고 수꽃은 1.2개로 나타났다. 이상의 결과는, 고온기에 45°C의 고온에서 2－3주간 환기 처리는 온실 내부의 고온 고습을 유도하여 흰가루병, 담배가루이, 두점박이응애를 통제하고, 개화를 억제하여 참외 의 영양 생장을 회복할 수 있는 방법으로 사료되었다.
Pest control treatment was carried out using an unmanned automatic pesticide spraying system that can spray pesticides on crops while moving autonomously to control pests in vegetable greenhouse. As a result of examining the control effect on tomato and strawberry on thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) pests, 85.6% of yellow flower thrips were found in tomatoes and 87.5% in strawberries, and 81.7% (tomato) and 80.6% (strawberry) of greenhouse whitefly. In addition, the control effect according to the pesticide treatment method showed a control effect of 81.7% of the chemical spraying treatment by manpower and 83.9% of the automatic moving pesticide spraying treatment (F=22.1, p < 0.001). When comparing the control effect between the two treatment sections, there was no significance, but the automatic transfer spraying treatment showed a 2.2% higher effect. On the other hand, as a result of comparing the spraying time of the drug, the automatic unmanned control sprayer had a spraying time of 5 min/10a, which took about 25 min less than the conventional manpower spraying time of 25－30 min/10a. Based on these results, it was judged that the automatic transfer spraying method could be usefully used for efficient pest control in the facility greenhouse during the peak period of development.
This study was conducted to investigate growth characteristics of paprika seedlings according to various qualities of LED light (red : blue = 10 : 0, red : blue = 8 : 2, red : blue = 2 : 8, white). Plant height and stem were significantly longer or thicker as red light ratio increased. Leaf area of paprika seedlings with red light was larger or no significant differences in a mixed light of red and blue. Dry weight of seedling was in the same with the result of leaf area. Seedlings with White light was significantly less than others in all characteristics. As red light ratio was increased, relative growth rate increased. As blue light ratio was increased, the net assimilation amount increased. Considering plant height, leaf area and production ability of dry matter per unit leaf area, the using mixed red and blue lights was suitable, especially at a mixed red : blue = 8 : 2.
This study aimed to determine the photosynthesis and growth characteristics of Peucedanum japonicum T. grown under aquaponics in a plant factory (AP) by comparing those grown under hydroponic cultivation system (HP). The AP system raised 30 fishes at a density of 10.6 kg·m-3 in a 367.5 L tank, and at HP, nutrient solution was controlled with EC 1.3 dS·m-1 and pH 6.5. The pH level ranged from 4.0 to 7.1 for the AP system and 4.0 to 7.4 for the HP system. The pH level in the AP began to decrease with an increase in nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and lasted bellower than pH 5.5 for 15–67 DAT. It was found that ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) continued to increase even under low pH conditions. EC was maintained at 1.3 to 1.5 dS·m-1 in both systems. The concentration of major mineral elements in the fish tank was higher than that of the hydroponics, except for K and Mg. There was no significant difference in the photosynthesis characteristics, but the PIABS parameters were 30.4% lower in the AP compared to the HP at the 34DAT and 12.0% lower at the 74DAT. There was no significant difference in the growth characteristics, but the petiole length was 56% longer in the leaf grown under the AP system. While there was no significant difference in the fresh and dry weights of leaf and root, the leaf area ratio was 36.43% higher in the AP system. All the integrated results suggest that aquaponics is a highly-sustainable farming to safely produce food by recycling agricultural by-products, and to produce Peucedanum japonicum as much as hydroponics under a proper fish density and pH level.