In this study, an accelerated weathering test was performed to examine the variation of thermal insulation performance according to the service life. A widely used class 1 thermal screen (matt georgette + polyethylene (PE) foam + chemical cotton + felt + matt georgette) was selected as the target thermal screen. The ultraviolet irradiation that reached the target thermal screen specimen (60 x 60cm) was 5mW/cm2. Thus, the ultraviolet irradiance was set to 5mW/cm2, and the exposure periods of accelerated weathering conditions on the specimens were set to 0, 282, 847, and 1412h. The radiation exposure periods of the weathering conditions for 0, 282, 847, and 1412h indicate the amount of ultraviolet accumulation for 0, 1, 3, and 5years, respectively. In the accelerated weathering test, the target specimens that completed each exposure phase were subjected to the hotbox test to analyze their thermal insulation performances. Consequently, the thermal insulation performance of the multi-layer thermal screen was estimated to degrade rapidly after approximately two years. In the accelerated weathering condition, a quadratic function model was used to calculate the expected service life, since it adequately described the variation in thermal insulation of the thermal screen according to time. The results showed that when the thermal insulation performance degraded by 5, 10, 20, and 30%, the expected service lives were 2.5, 3.3, 4.5, and 5.5years, respectively.
본 연구에서는 국내에 가장 많이 보급되어 있는 1-2W 모델 연동온실에 대한 온실 규격 및 환기창 형태 실태 조사를 수행하고, 이를 바탕으로 연동온실의 천창 형태에 따른 유동 특성을 분석하기 위해 수치해석을 수행하여 자연환기효과를 분석 하고자 하였다. 온실 실태조사 대상농가의 환기창면적 비율은 평균 10%로 자연환기를 위한 시설면적 대비 환기창 면적 설계가 부족한 것으로 나타나 환기창 개선이 필요할 것으로 판단된다. 연동 온실의 천창 형태별 자연환기를 해석 및 분석한 결과, 온실 내 작물위치의 온도 분포 및 내외부 온도차는 몽골식 천창 온실에서 가장 낮고 외몽골식 천창 온실에서 가장 높게 나타났으나 추후 풍하중에 의한 구조적인 안전성을 평가 해야할 것으로 판단된다.
In this study, we conducted the hot box tests to compare the changes in thermal insulation for the four types of multi-layer thermal screens by the used period after collecting them from the greenhouses in the field when they were replaced at the end of their usage. The main materials for these four types of multi-layer thermal screens were matt georgette, non-woven fabrics, polyethylene (PE) foam, chemical cotton, etc. These materials were differently combined for each multi-layer thermal screen. We built specimens (70×70 cm) for each of these multi-layer thermal screens and measured the temperature descending rate, heat transmission coefficient, and thermal resistance for each specimen through the hot box tests. With regard to the material combinations of multi-layer thermal screens, thermal insulation can be increased by applying a multi-layered PE foam. However, it is considered that the multilayered PE foam significantly less contributes to heat-retaining than chemical wool that forms an air-insulating layer inside multi-layer thermal screens. For the suitable heat-retaining performance of multi-layer thermal screens, basically, materials with the function of forming an air-insulating layer such as chemical cotton should be contained in multi-layer thermal screens. The temperature descending rate, heat transmission coefficient, and thermal resistance of multi-layer thermal screens were appropriately measured through the hot box tests designed in this study. However, in this study, we took into consideration only the four kinds of multi-layer thermal screens due to difficulties in collecting used multi-layer thermal screens. This is the results obtained with relatively few examples and it is the limit of this study. In the future, more cases should be investigated and supplemented through related research.
With the recent accelerated policy-making and interests in new renewable energy, plans to develop and supply the new renewable energy have been devised across multiple regions in Korea. Solar energy, in particular, is being applied to small-scale power supply in provincial areas, as solar cells are used to convert solar energy into electric energy to produce electric power. Nonetheless, in the case of solar power plants, the need for a large stretch of land and considerable sum of financial support implies that the planning step should take into consideration the most suitable meteorological and geographical factors. In this study, the proxy variables of meteorological and geographical factors associated with solar energy were considered in analyzing the vulnerable areas regarding the photovoltaic power generation facility across the nation. GIS was used in the spatial analysis to develop a map for assessing the optimal location for photovoltaic power generation facility. The final vulnerability map developed in this study did not reveal any areas that exhibit vulnerability level 5 (very high) or 1 (very low). Jeollanam-do showed the largest value of vulnerability level 4 (high), while a large value of vulnerability level 3 (moderate) was shown by several administrative districts including Gwangju metropolitan city, Jeollabuk-do, Chungcheongbuk-do, and Gangwon- do. A value of vulnerability level 2 (low) was shown by the metropolitan cities including Daegu, Ulsan, and Incheon. When the 30 currently operating solar power plants were compared and reviewed, most were found to be in an area of vulnerability level 2 or 3, indicating that the locations were relatively suitable for solar energy. However, the limited data quantity for solar power plants, which is the limitation of this study, prevents the accuracy of the findings to be clearly established. Nevertheless, the significance of this study lies in that an attempt has been made to assess the vulnerability map for photovoltaic power generation facility targeting various regions across the nation, through the use of the GIS-based spatial analysis technique that takes into account the diverse meteorological and geographical factors. Furthermore, by presenting the data obtained for all regions across the nation, the findings of this study are likely to prove useful as the basic data in fields related to the photovoltaic power generation.
아프리카 남단의 짐바브웨는 남한 면적의 4배의 드넓은 국토를 보유하고 비옥한 농토를 보유하여, 한때는 아프리카의 식량창고로 불리었으나, 농업정책의 실패로 이제는 식량 수입국가로 전락하여 농업의 부활이 절실한 나라이다.
2011년부터 시작된 KAFACI 국가별과제인 “콩 생산일관기계화 적용 및 실증” 과제를 추진하기 위하여 콩 예취기, 콩탈곡기 및 콩 정선기 등 한국의 소형 농기계를 현지에 투입하여 콩 수확작업에 대한 효과를 분석하였다.
콩 예취작업은 콩 예취기를 이용할 경우 작업시간이 12 시간/ha로서 인력작업시간 240시간/ha에 비해 20배정도 작업속도가 빠르고, 운전조작이 편리하여 여성도 손쉽게 작업할 수 있었다. 콩 탈곡작업은 틸곡기를 이용할 경우 14 시간/ha로 관행 인력으로 탈곡작업을 수행할 경우 소요되는 약 450 시
간/ha에 비해 30배 성능이 높게 나타났다.
경제성 분석력과 현지의 인건비가 매우 저렴하여 콩 예취작업의 경우 관행 인력작업의 비하여 콩 예취기를 이용하면 20%정도 비용이 상승되는 것으로 나타났다. 콩 탈곡의 경우는 작업성능이 인력의 30배 정도로 매우 우수하여 관행 인력작업에 비하여 콩 탈곡기를 이용할 경우 14%의 비용절감 효과가 있는 것으로 나타났다.
따라서 현재는 아프리카 국가 들이 경제적으로 열악하고 인력이 풍부하여 인건비가 저렴하여 농기계 수요가 낮지만, 농기계에 관심이 높았고 경제발전이 급속히 진행될 여지가 크므로 향후 식량기지화 및 농기계 수출 등을 고려한다면 아프리카 국가 특히 짐바브웨에 대한 지속적인 원조 및 투자가 필요
할 것으로 판단되었다.
Korea's protected horticulture is rapidly increasing in scale due to various advantages such as year-round harvesting, labor savings through automation and shortened culture period, and greater income generation. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of protected horticulture on water quality. The results of this study are expected to provide basic data contributing to improvements towards sustainable agriculture and eco-friendly design of protected horticulture complex. The average T-N and T-P loads from vinyl greenhouses were 286.55± 143.98 mg/L and 59.14±13.77 mg/L, respectively and those from glass greenhouses 380.68 ± 150.41 mg/L and 61.85±20.72 mg/L. The annual discharge of wastewater derived from the monthly discharge from the horticulture greenhouses were estimated at 2597 ton/ha, with the annual phosphorus load amounting to 155.3 kg/ha. The average T-N and T-P loads in the tested greenhouse effluents were in excess of 8.3- and 13.5-fold the standards for the Korean wastewater plant effluent. The waste nutrient solution discharged from a protected horticulture complex can cause water contamination. Therefore, there is a need to conduct follow-up research using a water purification system or a trench method to develop a eco-friendly protected horticulture complex for sustainable agriculture.
We examined the impact of paddy wetland's avian-diversity on the development of the protected horticulture complex. The results of this study were made to propose ecological protected horticulture complex and development direction suitable for avian habitat. The total number of species surveyed was analyzed as 1168 individuals in 11 orders 26 families and 36 generic 48 species. Type average was analyzed as paddy 17.25±4.83 species and 74.50±38.08 individuals, glass 10.00±0.82 species and 46.75±2.06 individuals, single 13.75±7.27 species and 59.50±35.34 individuals, multi 8.75±0.96 species and 36.75±9.29 individuals. Paddy showed higher species diversity than protected horticulture complex. The average number of species surveyed for one year was glass 14±2.83, multi 12±1.41, single 18±11.31, and paddy 26±11.31. The diversity difference was identified as paddy> single> glass and multi. Statistical analysis showed statistical difference of Ciconiiformes. Development of protected horticulture complex causes loss of avian habitat. The diversity index was glass 1.73±0.07, multi 1.68±0.14, single 1.91±0.47, and paddy 2.29±0.17. Paddy has a higher species diversity than the protected horticulture complex. For the purpose of ecological protected horticulture complex, detention ponds, artificial wetlands and habitats should be reflected in the design. This should be applied to reclamation areas or large-scale protected horticulture complexes.
The nonpoint pollution source (NPS) is irregular in the amount of generated and runoff. About 70% of the water pollution sources in Korea are NPS. Most of the rural areas are small towns with less than 50 families. This is where sewerage supply is poor. This is where the domestic swage of the house flows directly into the small stream. This study investigated the amount and concentration of domestic swage. And investigated NPS for public officials. We have suggested an improvement plan here. Local government officials lack the concept of NPS. Rural residents also do not know about NPS. Therefore, we proposed NPS public relations and education linked to public administration. This is an extension of the national budget and interest. The domestic swage is discharged at about 272 liters per day in a house. We proposed the introduction of small facilities. If the capacity remains, it is suggested to link to cattle shed, pigsty and so on. The BOD, COD, TN, TP, and SS concentrations were all high. This suggested a reduction in concentration in combination with natural water. Finally, NPS facilities were proposed to be put into rural areas. And it was determined that continuous monitoring was necessary. The results of this study were expected to be applied to NPS management.
Agricultural or rural landscape provides various ecosystem services. However, the ecosystem services function is declining due to various environmental problems such as climate change, land use change, stream intensification, non-point pollution and garbage. The A1B scenario predicts that the mean air temperature of South Korea will rise 3.8℃ degrees celsius in 2100. Agricultural sector is very vulnerable to climate change, so it must be thoroughly predicted and managed. In Korea, the facility horticulture complex is 54,051ha in 2016 and is the 3rd largest in the world(MAFRA, 2014). Facilities of horticultural complexes are reported to cause problems such as groundwater decrease, vegetation and insects diversity reduction, landscapes damage and garbage increase, compared with the existing land use paddy fields. Heat island phenomenon associated with climate change is also accelerated by the high heat absorption of horticultural sites. Therefore, we analyzed the heat island phenomenon occurring in the facility of horticultural complex in Korea. As an improvement measurement, I examined how much air temperature is reduced by putting the channel and the open space. In the case of the Buyeo area, the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was analyzed for the average summer temperature distribution in the current land use mode at 38.9℃. As an improvement measurement, CFD simulation after 10% of 6m water channel was found to have an effect of lowering the summer temperature of about 2.7℃ compared with the present average of 36.2℃. In addition, CFD simulations after analyzing 10% of the open space were analyzed at 34.7℃, which is 4.2℃ lower than the present. For the Jinju area, CFD simulations were analyzed for the average temperature of summer at 37.8℃ in the present land use pattern. As an improvement measure, CFD simulations after 10% of 6m water channel were found to have an effect of lowering the summer temperature of about 2.6℃ compared to the current average of 35.2℃. In addition, CFD simulations after analyzing 10% of the open space were analyzed at 33.9℃, which is 3.9℃ lower than the present. It can be said that the effect of summer temperature drop in open space and waterway has been proven. The results of this study are expected to be reflected in sustainable agriculture land use and used as basic data for government - level policy in land use planning for climate change.
Protected horticultural complexes would increase crop productivity but would adversely affect the groundwater recharge function in the area because the impervious area would increase. Further, they would limit the movement of living beings, affecting biodiversity. Therefore, this study evaluated the groundwater ecosystem services provided by protected horticultural complexes in terms of consistent utilization of water. The estimated amounts of groundwater loss obtained through quantitative assessment of groundwater infiltration showed that a higher impervious area results in higher losses. We, therefore, predict a much higher loss if similar changes in land use are realized on a nationwide scale. A plan to promote groundwater recharge in impervious areas is actively being discussed for urban areas; however, this plan is not yet applicable to farming areas. We consider it is essential to develop groundwater infiltration facilities for horticultural complexes, infiltration trenches, permeable pavements, surface water storage facilities, water purification facilities, etc. Further research and development of groundwater infiltration facilities is important for consistent utilization of water and the improvement of ecosystem services.
This paper introduces a graphical user interface design that is aimed to apply to the surveillance and security robot, which is the pilot program for the army unmanned light combat vehicle. It is essential to consider the activities of robot users under the changing security environment in order to design the efficient graphical user interface between user and robot to accomplish the designated mission. The proposed design approach firstly identifies the user activities to accomplish the mission in the standardized scenarios of military surveillance and security operation and then develops the hierarchy of the interface elements that are required to execute the tasks in the surveillance and security scenarios. The developed graphical user interface includes input control component, navigation component, information display component, and accordion and verified by the potential users from the various skilled levels with the military background. The assessment said that the newly developed user interface includes all the critical elements to execute the mission and is simpler and more intuitive compared to the legacy interface design that was more focused on the technical and functional information and informative to the system developing engineers rather than field users.