Currently, the Korean nuclear industry uses ZIRLO as material for nuclear fuel cladding(zirconium alloy). KEPCO Nuclear Fuel is in the process of developing a HANA alloy to enable domestic production of cladding. Cladding manufacture involves multistage heat treatments and pickling processes, the latter of which is vital for the removal of defects and impurities on the cladding surface. SMUT that forms on the cladding surface during such pickling process is a source of surface defects during heat treatment and post-treatment processes if not removed. This study analyzes ZIRLO, HANA-4, and HANA-6 alloy claddings to extensively study the SEM/EDS, XRD, and particle size characteristics of SMUT, which are second phase particles that are formed on the cladding surface during pickling processes. Using the analysis results, this study observes SMUT formation characteristics according to Nb concentration in Zr alloys during the washing process following the pickling process. In addition, this study observes SMUT removal characteristics on cladding surfaces according to concentrations of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in the acid solution.
Structure behaviors resulting from an earthquake are experimentally simulated mainly through a shaking table test. As for large-scale structures, however, size effects over a miniature may make it difficult to assess actual behaviors properly. To address this problem, research on the hybrid simulation is being conducted actively. This method is to implement numerical analysis on framework members that affect the general behavior of the structure dominantly through an actual scale experiment and on the rest parts by applying the substructuring technique. However, existing studies on hybrid simulation focus mainly on Slow experimental methods, which are disadvantageous in that it is unable to assess behaviors close to the actual level if material properties change depending on the speed or the influence of inertial force is significant. The present study aims to establish a Real-time hybrid simulation system capable of excitation based on the actual time history and to verify its performance and applicability. The hybrid simulation system built up in this study utilizes the ATS Compensator system, CR integrator, etc. in order to make the target displacement the same with the measured displacement on the basis of MATLAB/Simulink. The target structure was a 2-span bridge and an RC pier to support it was produced as an experimental model in order for the shaking table test and Slow and Real-time hybrid simulations. Behaviors that result from the earthquake of El Centro were examined, and the results were analyzed comparatively. In comparison with the results of the shaking table test, the Real-time hybrid simulation produced more similar maximum displacement and vibration behaviors than the Slow hybrid simulation. Hence, it is thought that the Real-time hybrid simulation proposed in this study can be utilized usefully in seismic capacity assessment of structural systems such as RC pier that are highly non-linear and time-dependent.