본 연구는 대북정책 추진과정에서 집단기억이라는 북한 내부의 특징을 적극적으로 고려해야 한다는 점에서부터 시작한다. 북한 내부 상황이나 북한 주민의 대남 인식과 북한당국에 대한 충성도와 결집도 등이 고려되 지 않는다면 대북정책의 효과성은 그만큼 낮을 수밖에 없다. 북한 주민 의 세대별 집단기억을 살펴보기 위해 북한이탈주민을 대상으로 심층면접 을 진행했다. 연구대상은 북한 장마당 세대로 1980~90년대에 태어나 ‘고 난의 행군’ 시기에 유년·청소년기를 겪은 세대이며 이들의 나이는 대략 15~35세이다. 장마당 시기 신념을 주체사상, 우리식사회주의, 당과수령, 미제와 남조선, 자본주의에 관한 인식으로 구분해 살펴보았다. 장마당 세 대의 두드러진 집단기억은 무엇보다 국가와 당이 물질적으로 해 준 것이 아무것도 없으며, 이는 곧 우리식사회주의와 주체사상의 이완으로 이어 졌음을 알 수 있다. 또한 이들의 신념체계를 무너뜨리는 가장 중요한 요 인은 남한 영상물로 대변되는 외부정보에 대한 노출로 나타났다. 이전 세대인 ‘천리마세대’와 비교해 자신들의 정체성을 명확히 구분하고 있으 며, 특히 당에 대한 충성도와 결집력에서 많은 차이를 보였다. 장마당 세 대에 관한 집단기억은 향후 대북정책 추진과정에서 북한 주민의 의식구 조를 선이해하여 정책의 효과성을 높인다는 점에서 의미가 있다.
Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) is a known to modulate the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM)
components in 3T3-L1. However, the possible role of DPHC in integument stability during obesity induction is not clear yet.
We evaluated the effects of DPHC on collagen or elastic fiber quantity in integument during obesity induction with high-fat
diet. The dorsal back integument sections were stained with hematoxylin–eosin, Masson trichrome, and Verhoff-Van Gieson.
The intensities of collagen fibers and elastin fibers were analyzed with ImageJ. The number of fibroblasts was counted at
×1,000 fields. The number of fibroblast was increased by obesity induction, but DPHC suppressed it in a concentrationdependent
manner both in lean and obese mice. On the other hand, the intensities of collagen fibers were increased by DPHC
treatment in obese mice groups but not in lean mice groups. The intensities of collagen fibers of obese mice were lower than
that of the lean mice in 0% group. However, the number became similar between lean and obese mice by the treatment of
DPHC. The intensity of elastic fibers was increased in the lean mice with the concentration of DPHC. In the obese mice group, there were increasing patterns but only significant at 10% DPHC group. The intensity of elastic fibers of obese mice was higher than lean mice in 0%, 1%, and 10% groups. Histologically epithelial cells and follicle cells which were diffused nuclear staining forms were increased by DPHC treatment. The results suggest that the activity of integument cells during obesity induction can be modulated by DPHC.
Adipogenesis is critical in development and homeostasis of energy metabolism. However, in these days, the obesity has become prevalent and became a cause of medial complication. Various applications have been suggested to prevent or decrease accumulaiton of energy in fat cells. However, those have little usefulness and have various side effects. Diphlorethohydroxy-carmalol (DPHC) is a phlorotannin compound, with various biological activities in vitro and in vivo. In here, we studied that DPHC could modify the accumulation of fat on integument. The size of adipocytes and thickness of the subcutanous fat tissue was analyzed after treatment of cosmetics contained 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 % DPHC using NIS Element D 4.10.00 software (Nikon). The viability and proliferation of cell was analyzed after 0, 0.4, 2, 10, or 50μg/ml of DPHC treatment using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazo-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay (R&D system, Cat # 48090-025-k) and measurment of doubling time. Accumulation of lipids in differentiating preadipocytes was analyzed with spectrophotometer after Oil Red-O staining. The size of adipocyte and thickness in skin was decreased in DPHC treated mice. The metabolic activity and doubling of 3T3-L1 were suppressed by DPHC in concentration dependent manner. DPHC also inhibit accumulation of lipids in the adipocyte. The expression of the marker genes for adipocyte differentiation coincided with cytochemical results. Base on them, it is suggested that DPHC has antiobesity effects in integument through suppress accumulation of lipids and suppress the proliferation and differentiation both of adipose stem cells and precursor cells.