3Y-TZP (3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals) ceramics have excellent mechanical properties including high fracture toughness, good abrasion resistance as well as chemical and biological stability. As a result, they are widely used in mechanical and medical components such as bearings, grinding balls, and hip implants. In addition, they provide excellent light transmittance, biocompatibility, and can match tooth color when used as a dental implant. Recently, given the materials’ resemblance to human teeth, these ceramics have emerged as an alternative to titanium implants. Since the introduction of CAD/CAM in the manufacture of ceramic implants, they’ve been increasingly used for prosthetic restoration where aesthetics and strength are required. In this study, to improve the surface roughness of zirconia implants, we modified the 3YTZP surface with a biocomposite of hydroxyapatite and forsterite using room temperature spray coating methods, and investigated the mixed effect of the two powders on the evolution of surface microstructure, i.e., coating thickness and roughness, and biological interaction during the in vitro test in SBF solution. We compared improvement in bioactivity by observing dissolution and re-precipitation on the specimen surface. From the results of in vitro testing in SBF solution, we confirmed improvement in the bioactivity of the 3Y-TZP substrate after surface modification with a biocomposite of hydroxyapatite and forsterite. Surface dissolution of the coating layer and the precipitation of new hydroxyapatite particles was observed on the modified surface, indicating the improvement in bioactivity of the zirconia substrate.
Perfluorooctanoic acid(PFOA) was one of widely used per- and poly substances(PFAS) in the industrial field and its concentration in the surface and groundwater was found with relatively high concentration compared to other PFAS. Since various processes have been introduced to remove the PFOA, adsorption using GAC is well known as a useful and effective process in water and wastewater treatment. Surface modification for GAC was carried out using Cu and Fe to enhance the adsorption capacity and four different adsorbents, such as GAC-Cu, GAC-Fe, GAC-Cu(OH)2, GAC-Fe(OH)3 were prepared and compared with GAC. According to SEM-EDS, the increase of Cu or Fe was confirmed after surface modification and higher weight was observed for Cu and Fe hydroxide(GAC-Cu(OH)2 and GAC-Fe(OH)3, respectively). BET analysis showed that the surface modification reduced specific surface area and total pore volumes. The highest removal efficiency(71.4%) was obtained in GAC-Cu which is improved by 17.9% whereas the use of Fe showed lower removal efficiency compared to GAC. PFOA removal was decreased with increase of solution pH indicating electrostatic interaction governs at low pH and its effect was decreased when the point of zero charges(pzc) was negatively increased with an increase of pH. The enhanced removal of PFOA was clearly observed in solution pH 7, confirming the Cu in the surface of GAC plays a role on the PFOA adsorption. The maximum uptake was calculated as 257 and 345 μg/g for GAC and GAC-Cu using Langmuir isotherm. 40% and 80% of removal were accomplished within 1 h and 48 h. According to R2, only the linear pseudo-second-order(pso) kinetic model showed 0.98 whereas the others obtained less than 0.870.
본 연구의 목적은 PET를 재활용하여 만든 물질재생 PET사를 함침공정을 통해 고전도성의 E-textile로 제작하는 것이다. 소수성의 성질을 가지고 있는 PET사는 virgin과 recycled 모두 함침공정을 통해 전자섬유로 제작되었을 때에 높은 전도성을 부여하기 힘들다는 특징이 있다. 함침공정의 효율성 향상을 위해 FEMTO SCIENCE사의 Covance-2mprfq 모델을 사용하여 재생 PET사로 이루어진 시료를 50w 5분, 10분간 플라즈마로 표면 개질하였다. 이 후 SWCNT 분산액(.1wt%, cobon 사)에 5분간 시료를 담근 후 패딩기(Padder, DAELIM lab)를 통해 시료 안쪽으로 용액이 잘 스며들도록 Dip-coating 진행하였다. 공정이 완료된 후 저항측정을 양끝점에서 멀티미터를 통해 측정하 고 좀 더 넓은 전극을 통해 정밀하게 다시 측정하였다. 고찰한 결과 플라즈마 표면 개질을 통해 함침공정을 통한 고전도성 부여가 가능해졌음을 확인할 수 있었다. 10분간 표면 개질한 경우 저항이 최대 2.880배 감소하였다. 본 연구결과를 기반으로 스마트 웨어러블 분야에서 활용되는 E-textile 또한 recycle 소재로 제작함으로써 석유자원을 절약하고 탄소배출량을 감소시킬 수 있는 스마트 웨어러블 제품을 개발하고자 한다.
본 총설은 소수성 불소수지계 분리막의 표면 개질에 대한 개론으로 다양한 표면 개질 방법 및 그 연구 결과를 중 점적으로 서술하였다. PTFE로 대표되는 불소수지계 고분자 분리막은 막 증류, 유수 분리, 기체 분리를 포함한 다양한 막 분 리 공정에서 사용되어왔다. PTFE 막은 내화학성, 내열성, 높은 기계적 강도와 같은 뛰어난 물성에도 불구하고 소수성 표면 특성으로 인해 기술 적용의 확장에 제한적이다. 친수성 향상을 위해 습식 화학법, 친수성 고분자 코팅, 플라즈마 처리, 조사, 원자층 증착과 같은 다양한 PTFE 표면 개질 방법을 이용하며 이를 통해 불소수지계 분리막의 응용분야가 확장될 수 있다.
본 연구는 전기투석과 용매추출을 융합한 희유금속 회수 공정에서 분리막과 음이온교환막의 개질을 통해 유기상 과 수상에 대한 분리막의 낮은 젖음성 및 AEM을 통한 수소이온 투과로 인한 금속이온의 회수 효율 감소를 개선하였다. 구체 적으로, 분리막 표면 중 한면은 polydopamine (PDA) 통한 친수성 개질, 다른 면은 SiO2 또는 graphene oxide를 통한 친유성 개질을 함으로써 분리막의 젖음성을 개선하였다. 또한, 음이온교환막의 표면을 polyethyleneimine, PDA, poly(vinylidene fluoride) 등을 이용, 개질해 수분 흡수(Water uptake) 감소 및 기공구조 변화를 통해 수소이온 수송을 억제해 수소이온 투과를 억 제할 수 있다. 개질된 막 표면 형상과 화학적 특성 및 조성은 주사전자현미경과 푸리에변환 적외선 분광법을 통해 확인되었 고, 이를 구리 이온 회수 시스템에 적용해 향상된 추출 및 탈거 효율과 수소이온 수송 억제능을 확인하였다.
The adsorption process using GAC is one of the most secured methods to remove of phosphate from solution. This study was conducted by impregnating Cu(II) to GAC(GAC-Cu) to enhance phosphate adsorption for GAC. In the preparation of GAC-Cu, increasing the concentration of Cu(II) increased the phosphate uptake, confirming the effect of Cu(II) on phosphate uptake. A pH experiment was conducted at pH 4-8 to investigate the effect of the solution pH. Decrease of phosphate removal efficiency was found with increase of pH for both adsorbents, but the reduction rate of GAC-Cu slowed, indicating electrostatic interaction and coordinating bonding were simultaneously involved in phosphate removal. The adsorption was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm to determine the maximum phosphate uptake(qm) and adsorption mechanism. According to correlation of determination(R2), Freundlich isotherm model showed a better fit than Langmuir isotherm model. Based on the negative values of qm, Langmuir adsorption constant(b), and the value of 1/n, phosphate adsorption was shown to be unfavorable and favorable for GAC and GAC-Cu, respectively. The attempt of the linearization of each isotherm obtained very poor R2. Batch kinetic tests verified that ~30% and ~90 phosphate adsorptions were completed within 1 h and 24 h, respectively. Pseudo second order(PSO) model showed more suitable than pseudo first order(PFO) because of higher R2. Regardless of type of kinetic model, GAC-Cu obtained higher constant of reaction(K) than GAC.
Numerous chemical modifications on activated carbon such as acidic conditioning, thermal treatment and metal impregnation have been investigated to enhance adsorption capacities of micropollutants in water treatment plants. In this study, chemical modification including acidic, alkaline treatment, and iron-impregnation was evaluated for adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). For Fe-impregnation, three concentrations of ferric chloride solutions, i.e., 0.2 M, 0.4 M, and 0.8 M, were used and ion-exchange (MIX) of iron and subsequent thermal treatment (MTH) were also applied. Surface properties of the modified carbons were analyzed by active surface area, pore volume, three-dimensional images, and chemical characteristics. The acidic and alkaline treatment changed the pore structures but yielded little improvement of adsorption capacities. As Fe concentrations were increased during impregnation, the active adsorption areas were decreased and the compositional ratios of Fe were increased. Adsorption capacities of modified ACs were evaluated using Langmuir isotherm. The MIX modification was not efficient to enhance 2,4-DCP adsorption and the MES treatment showed increases in adsorption capacities of 2,4-DCP, compared to the original activated carbon. These results implied a possibility of chemical impregnation modification for improvement of adsorption of 2,4-DCP, if a proper modification procedure is sought.
This paper reports slug bubble dynamics on modified surface with two-dimensional graphene film in downward-facing nucleate boiling. Behaviors of slug bubbles were observed with high speed camera, and post-processing was followed to measure departing speed, frequency, and diameter of slug bubbles, which were important to analyze boiling performance change. The graphene-modified surface showed enhanced boiling heat transfer coefficient (BHTC) and critical heat flux (CHF). The effect of surface modification on slug bubble dynamics was quantitatively analyzed; bigger slugs departed from the modified surface with faster speed but same frequency, compared with the bare. It seems that the BHTC enhancement is caused by increase of bubble diameter, resulting in increase of its departing speed. The higher speed of departing bubble could extend the hydrodynamic limit of vapor removal from downward-facing surface, so that CHF performance could be enhanced.
리튬금속전지(LMB)는 매우 큰 이론 용량을 갖지만 단락(short circuit), 수명 감소 등을 야기하는 덴드라이트(dendrite) 가 형성되는 큰 문제점을 갖고 있다. 본 연구에서는 poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)에 graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet를 고르게 분산시킨 PDMS/GO 복합체를 합성하였고 이를 박막 형태로 코팅하여 덴드라이트의 형성을 물리적으로 억제할 수 있는 막의 효과를 이끌어내었다. PDMS의 경우, 그 자체로는 이온 전도체가 아니기 때문에 리튬 이온의 통로를 형성시켜 리튬 이온의 이동을 원활하게 하기 위하여 5wt% 불산(HF)으로 에칭하여 PDMS/GO 박막이 이온전도성을 가질 수 있도록 하였다. 주사전자현미경(scanning electron microscopy, SEM)을 통해 전면 및 단면을 관찰하여 PDMS/GO 박막의 형상을 확인하였다. 그리고 PDMS/GO 박막을 리튬금속전지에 적용하여 실시한 배터리 테스트 결과, 100번째 사이클까지 쿨롱 효율(columbic efficiency) 이 평균 87.4%로 유지되었고, 박막이 코팅되지 않은 구리 전극보다 과전압이 감소되었음을 전압 구배(voltage profile) 를 통해 확인하였다.