We performed a study to examine the association between diet quality and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our study included 3,586 women aged 40-64 years who participated in the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study subjects were classified into the NAFLD group (n=816) and the normal group (n=2,770) using the hepatic steatosis index. The anthropometric indices, blood profiles, and dietary intake data of the subjects were obtained. The waist circumference, body mass index, and the serum levels of triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in the NAFLD compared to the normal groups (p<0.001, respectively). The intakes of protein (g/kg body weight, p<0.001), potassium (p<0.001), and vitamin A (p=0.006) were significantly lower in the NAFLD group. It was observed that the higher the total Korean Healthy Eating Index score, the lower the risk of NAFLD. A reverse relationship was shown between the NAFLD risk and the intakes of total fruits, total vegetables, vegetables excluding Kimchi and pickled vegetables, meat, fish, eggs and beans. Therefore, it is recommended that middleaged women in Korea increase their intakes of fruits, vegetables, and foods high in protein for the proper management of NAFLD.