Non-structural elements, such as equipment, are typically affixed to a building’s floor or ceiling and move in tandem with the structure during an earthquake. Seismic forces acting upon non-structural elements traverse the ground and the building’s structure. Considering this seismic load transmission mechanism, it becomes imperative to account for the interactions between soil, structure, and equipment, establishing seismic design procedures accordingly. In this study, a Soil-Structure-Equipment Interaction (SSEI) model is developed. Through seismic response analysis using this model, how the presence or absence of SSEI impacts equipment behavior is examined. Neglecting the SSEI aspect when assessing equipment responses results in an overly conservative evaluation of its seismic response. This emphasizes the necessity of proposing an analytical model and design methodology that adequately incorporate the interaction effect. Doing so enables the calculation of rational seismic forces and facilitates the seismic design of non-structural elements.
Analysis of the 2016 Gyeongju earthquake and the 2017 Pohang earthquake showed the characteristics of a typical high-frequency earthquake with many high-frequency components, short time strong motion duration, and large peak ground acceleration relative to the magnitude of the earthquake. Domestic nuclear power plants were designed and evaluated based on NRC's Regulatory Guide 1.60 design response spectrum, which had a great deal of energy in the low-frequency range. Therefore, nuclear power plants should carry out seismic verification and seismic performance evaluation of systems, structures, and components by reflecting the domestic characteristics of earthquakes. In this study, high-frequency amplification factors that can be used for seismic verification and seismic performance evaluation of nuclear power plant systems, structures, and equipment were analyzed. In order to analyze the high-frequency amplification factor, five sets of seismic time history were generated, which were matched with the uniform hazard response spectrum to reflect the characteristics of domestic earthquake motion. The nuclear power plant was subjected to seismic analysis for the construction of the Korean standard nuclear power plant, OPR1000, which is a reactor building, an auxiliary building assembly, a component cooling water heat exchanger building, and an essential service water building. Based on the results of the seismic analysis, a high-frequency amplification factor was derived upon the calculation of the floor response spectrum of the important locations of nuclear power plants. The high-frequency amplification factor can be effectively used for the seismic verification and seismic performance evaluation of electric equipment which are sensitive to high-frequency earthquakes.
In 2016, an earthquake occurred at Gyeongju, Korea. At the Wolsong site, the observed peak ground acceleration was lower than the operating basis earthquake (OBE) level of Wolsong nuclear power plant. However, the measured spectral acceleration value exceeded the spectral acceleration of the operating-basis earthquake (OBE) level in some sections of the response spectrum, resulting in a manual shutdown of the nuclear power plant. Analysis of the response spectra shape of the Gyeongju earthquake motion showed that the high-frequency components are stronger than the response spectra shape used in nuclear power plant design. Therefore, the seismic performance evaluation of structures and equipment of nuclear power plants should be made to reflect the characteristics of site-specific earthquakes. In general, the floor response spectrum shape at the installation site or the generalized response spectrum shape is used for the seismic performance evaluation of structures and equipment. In this study, a generalized response spectrum shape is proposed for seismic performance evaluation of structures and equipment for nuclear power plants. The proposed response spectrum shape reflects the characteristics of earthquake motion in Korea through earthquake hazard analysis, and it can be applied to structures and equipment at various locations.
The probabilistic seismic safety assessment is one of the methodology to evaluate the seismic safety of the nuclear power plants. The site characteristics of the nuclear power plant should be reflected when evaluating the seismic safety of the nuclear power plant. The Korea seismic characteristics are strong in high frequency region and may be different from NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60, which is the design spectrum of nuclear power plants. In this study, seismic response of a nuclear power plant structure by Pohang earthquake (2017.11.15. (KST)) is investigated. The Pohang earthquake measured at the Cheongsong seismic observation station (CHS) is scaled to the peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.2 g and the seismic acceleration time history curve corresponding to the design spectrum is created. A nuclear power plant of the containment building and the auxiliary buildings are modeled using OPENSEES to analyze the seismic response of the Pohang earthquake. The seismic behavior of the nuclear power plant due to the Pohang earthquake is investigated. And the seismic performances of the equipment of a nuclear power plant are evaluated by the HCLPF. As a result, the seismic safety evaluation of nuclear power plants should be evaluated based on site-specific characteristics of nuclear power plants.
원자력발전소에는 전력생산과 안전과 관련된 수많은 기기들이 존재하고 있다. 기본적으로 원자력발전소의 구조물과 기기는 지진시 탄성거동올 목표로 안전율을 매우 높게 적용하여 설계해 왔다. 그러나 최근 발생한 지진의 규모가 증가함에 따라 설계수준을 초과한 지진에 대한 기기의 안전성을 재평가할 필요가 있다. 본 연구에서는 구조물의 비선형 거동에 의한 층응답을 분석하였고, 비선형해석에 의한 구조물의 비탄성구조응답계수를 재평가하였다. 기기의 지진취약도 평가시 구조물의 비탄성구조응답이 어떤 영향을 주는지 분석하기 위하여 재평가된 구조물의 비탄성구조응답계수와 기존에 사용되어온 구조물 비탄성구조응답계수를 적용하여 지진취약도 평가를 수행하였다. 해석결과에 따르면 비탄성구조응답계수는 기기의 고유진동수, 기기의 위치 그리고 구조물의 동특성에 따라 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났다.
원자력발전소의 기기, 배관 시스템과 같은 부속구조물의 동적 응답을 먼기 위해 사용되는 층응답스펙트럼은 일반적으로 주구조물과 부속구조물의 동적 상호작용이 반영되지 않고 만들어진다. 본 연구에서는 기기와 구조물의 동적 상호작용이 고려된 해석을 통해 층응답스펙트럼을 생성시키는 해석법을 기술하였다. 이 방법은 기기를 모사하는 단자유도계와 기기가 놓여있는 구조물의 임피던스로 분할되는 부분구조 해석법을 적용하여 기기의 응답을 구한다. 단자유도계의 진동수, 감쇠비 및 질량 특성을 변화시키면서 최대 동적 응답을 계산함으로써 일련의 층응답스펙트럼을 작성한다. 전형적인 원자력발전소의 원자로 구조물에서 본 방법을 고려한 층응답스펙트럼과 기기를 포함한 전체 해석으로부터 작성된 층응답스펙트럼과 비교함으로써 본 연구의 타당성을 확인하였다. 기기-구조물 상호작용 효과를 확인하기 위하여 구조물 질량의 1% 이내인 기기에 대하여 기술된 방법과 기존 방법을 각각 적용하여 최대 응답값을 비교하였다. 그 결과 지배 진동수 부근에서 기기-구조물 상호작용을 고려한 응답이 그렇지 않은 경우인 기존방법의 응답에 비하여 저감되는 현상을 보였다.