Three-dimensional Analysis of Populism in Pakistan Under the Background of the "Belt and Road"
Bilateral profound friendship between China and Pakistan and the "all-weather strategic partnership" have given great support to mutual cooperation. China and Pakistan are moving forward to the goal of "economic corridor construction as the center, Gwadar port, transport infrastructure, energy and industrial cooperation as the points to form the ‘1+4’ economic cooperation and common development". However, the relationship between the two countries is also facing some challenges in the process of sustainable development, among which the populist in Pakistan is gradually emerging. If left unchecked, it may lead to a great threat to CPEC and other cooperation. Therefore, strengthening basic research on populism in Pakistan is of great significance for enhancing the all-weather strategic cooperative partnership and ensuring the smooth implementation of the CPEC. After reviewing the current research status and deficiencies of populism theory, this paper analyzes populism from the dimensions of social classes, religions and regions, so as to deeply understand the breeding source of populism. From the perspective of class, populism in Pakistan has distinct characteristics of class antagonism. From a religious perspective, there is a deeply rooted political psychology among the Pakistani people. From a regional perspective, the traditional social structure of Islam in Pakistan determines that the loyalty of individuals to religion, family and a smaller region is greater than the loyalty to the nation state.
中巴两国的深厚友谊和“全天候战略合作伙伴关系”给两国围绕“一带一 路”展开的各项合作提供了政府层面的巨大支撑，也使中国和巴基斯坦正继 续向着“以中巴经济走廊建设为中心，以瓜达尔港、交通基础设施、能源和 产业合作为重点，形成‘1＋4’经济合作布局，实现合作共赢和共同发展”的 目标继续前进。不过，两国关系也在持续发展的过程中不断面临着一些挑 战，其中巴基斯坦国内的民粹主义问题逐渐显现，如果放任其泛滥，将有 可能导致中巴经济走廊等各项合作面临巨大威胁。因此加强对巴基斯坦民 粹主义的基础研究对于继续发展中巴两国的全天候战略合作伙伴关系，并 保证中巴经济走廊的各方面既得成果和长期规划得以顺利实施有着非常重 要的意义。本文在整理回顾了当前的民粹主义理论研究现状和不足后，针 对巴基斯坦国各方面的特殊性，创新地选取了阶级、宗教和地域三维视角 来对其民粹主义进行了剖析，深刻起底民粹主义滋生繁衍的营养源。本文 认为从阶级视角看，巴基斯坦民粹主义有着鲜明的阶级对立和斗争特征； 从宗教视角看，巴基斯坦的民众和宗教存在一种根生蒂固的政治心理；从 地域视角看，巴基斯坦伊斯兰传统社会结构决定了个体对宗教、家族和更 小范围地域等的忠诚度超过对民族国家的忠诚度。