Reproductive disorders in cows cause economic loss in livestock farms. Reproductive diseases, such as follicular cyst, luteal cyst, endometritis, pyometra, and repeat breeding cause infertility. Among these diseases, endometritis and pyometra are uterine infections that are leading causes of infertility. This study was performed to investigate the causative agents of uterine diseases using bacterial culture. Bacteria were obtained from the reproductive organs (vagina, uterine cervix, and uterine horn) of dairy cow diagnosed with endometritis or pyometra, and cultured on blood agar. The colonies obtained from cultivation for 24 hours were passaged. To identify the bacteria, the colonies grown in passaged culture Gram stained and applied to an automatic biochemical microbial identification system. Escherichia coli were commonly detected in vagina, uterine cervix, and uterine horn of dairy cows diagnosed to pyometra. The cows having endometritis showed not only Escherichia coli but also Pantoea spp. and Klebsiella spp. strains. Dairy cows that were infected with Escherichia coli in uterus caused mastitis or digestive disease. These results suggest that sanitary feeding and management beforehand are needed to prevent bacterial infections.
Alteration in ion channel or transporter expression levels affects cell volume which is produced by movement of water and ion across the plasma membrane. In particular, aquaporin (AQP) channels among ion channels play a crucial role in movement of water across the cell membrane. This study was performed to identify whether AQP expression is changed in bovine follicular cystic follicles using microarray, RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. In microarray data, AQP4 expression was decreased, whereas AQP7 was increased in cystic follicles. Additional experiments were focused on the AQP7 expression increased in cystic follicles. The microarray data was confirmed by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. AQP7 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly increased in the cystic follicles (p<0.05). Application of estrogen (10 μg/ml) to bovine ovarian cells showed a trend of increase in AQP7 expression. From these results, we suggest that the increase in AQP7 expression in cystic follicles may play an important role in movement of water in bovine ovary. In addition, AQP7, a aquaglyceroporin permeating water and glycerol, could be a good target in development of methods for the cryopreservation of bovine ovary.
Programmed cell death or apoptosis is associated with changes in K+ concentration in many cell types. Recent studies have demonstrated that two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels are involved in mouse embryonic development and apoptotic volume decrease of mammalian cells. In cerebellar granule neurons that normally undergo apoptosis during the early developmental stage, TASK-1 and TASK-3, members of K2P channels, were found to be critical for cell death. This study was performed to identify the role of K+ channels in the H2O2-induced or cryo-induced cell death of mouse and bovine embryos. Mouse and bovine two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) exposed to H2O2 for 4 h suffered from apoptosis. The 2-cells showed positive TUNEL staining. Treatment with high concentration of KCl (25mM) inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis of 2-cells by 19%. Cryo-induced death in bovine blastocysts showed positive TUNEL staining only in the cells near the plasma membrane. Cryoprotectant supplemented with 25 mM KCl reduced apoptosis slightly compared to cryoprotectant supplemented with 5 mM KCl. However, the combination of antioxidants (β-mercaptoethanol) with 25 mM KCl significantly decreased the rate of H2O2-induced and cryo-induced apoptosis compared to treatments with only antioxidants or 25 mM KCl. These results show that blockage of K+ channel efflux for a short-time reduces H2O2- and cryo-induced apoptosis in mouse and bovine embryos. Our findings suggest that apoptosis in mouse and bovine embryos might be controlled by modulation of K+ channels which are highly expressed in a given cell type.
임신의 성립 및 유지에 중요한 자궁 내막과 호르몬의 변화는 생식기관에서 발현되는 K 통로의 발현을 변화시킬 수 있다. 본 연구는 한우의 임신 자궁 내막에서 K 통로의 발현 변화가 나타나는지 그리고 프로게스테론에 의해 그 발현량이 변화되는지를 확인하고자 수행하였다. 역전사중합효소 중합반응과 웨스턴블닷 분석을 통하여 임신한 한우의 자궁 내막에서 mRNA와 단백질의 발현 변화를 조사하였다. TREK-1을 제외한 K 통로의 mRNA 발현량이 임신 자궁 내막에서