Indirect oxidation using chlorine species oxidizing agents is often effective in wastewater treatment using an electrochemical oxidation process. When chlorine ions are contained in the wastewater, oxidizing agents of various chlorine species are produced during electrolysis. In a ballast water management system, it is also used to treat ballast water by electrolyzing seawater to produce a chlorine species oxidizer. However, ballast water in the brackish zone and some wastewater has a low chlorine ion concentration. Therefore, it is necessary to study the chlorine generation current efficiency at various chlorine concentration conditions. In this study, the chlorine generating current efficiency of a boron-doped diamond(BDD) electrode and insoluble electrodes are compared with various chloride ion concentrations. The results of this study show that the current efficiency of the BDD electrode is better than that of the insoluble electrodes. The chlorine generation current efficiency is better in the order of BDD, MMO(mixed metal oxide), Ti/RuO2, and Ti/IrO2 electrodes. In particular, when the concentration of sodium chloride is 10 g/L or less, the current efficiency of the BDD electrode is excellent.
A boron-doped diamond(BDD) electrode is attractive for many electrochemical applications due to its distinctive properties: an extremely wide potential window in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes, a very low and stable background current and a high resistance to surface fouling. An Ar gas mixture of H2, CH4 and trimethylboron (TMB, 0.1 % C3H9B in H2) is used in a hot filament chemical vapor deposition(HFCVD) reactor. The effect of argon addition on quality, structure and electrochemical property is investigated by scanning electron microscope(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and cyclic voltammetry(CV). In this study, BDD electrodes are manufactured using different Ar/CH4 ratios (Ar/CH4 = 0, 1, 2 and 4). The results of this study show that the diamond grain size decreases with increasing Ar/CH4 ratios. On the other hand, the samples with an Ar/CH4 ratio above 5 fail to produce a BDD electrode. In addition, the BDD electrodes manufactured by introducing different Ar/CH4 ratios result in the most inclined to (111) preferential growth when the Ar/CH4 ratio is 2. It is also noted that the electrochemical properties of the BDD electrode improve with the process of adding argon.
Infrared(IR) heating has many advantages, such as energy efficiency, reduced heating time, cleanliness, equipment compactness, high drying rate and easy automation. These features of IR heating provide widely industrial applications, such as surface heat treatment in semiconductor fabrication, thermoforming of polymers, drying and disinfection of food products, heating to metal forging, and drying of wet materials. In this study, the characteristics of a protected gold mirror were examined by spectrophotometer and the lifetime of the coating layers were evaluated by a cross-cutting method and salt spray test. The effects of manufacturing conditions on the protected gold mirror were seen and remedies for these effects were noted in order to improve the properties of the protected gold mirror in the drying process. The reflectance and lifetime of the protected gold mirror was influenced by manufacturing conditions, such as surface roughness and forming conditions of the anti-oxide layer, the adhesion layer, the reflecting layer and the protection layer. The results of this study showed that the protected gold mirror manufactured using a buffing method for pre-treatment resulted in the most effective reflectance. In addition, Al2O3 coating on an Al substrate as an anti-oxide layer was more effective than the anodizing process in the test of reflectance. Furthermore, the protected gold mirror manufactured by layers forming of various materials resulted in the most effective reflectance and lifetime when coated with Al2O3 as the anti-oxide layer, coated Cr as the adhesion layer, and coated MgF2 as the protection layer.
This study investigated the effects of the post annealing temperatures on the electrical and interfacial properties of a metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector(MSM-PD) device. The interdigitate type MSM-PD devices had the structure Al(500 nm) / Ti(200 nm) / poly-Si(500 nm). Structural analyses of the MSM-PD devices were performed by employing X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and transmission electron microscope(TEM). Electrical characteristics of the MSM-PD were also examined using current-voltage(I-V) measurements. The optimal post annealing condition for the Schottky contact of MSM-PD devices are 350℃-30minutes. However, as the annealing temperature and time are increased, electrical characteristics of MSM-PD device are degraded. Especially, for the annealing conditions of 400℃-180minutes and 500℃-30minutes, the I-V measurement itself was impossible. These results are closely related to the solid phase reactions at the interface of MSM-PD device, which result in the formation of intermetallic compounds such as Al3Ti and Ti7Al5Si12.
Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode has an extremely wide potential window in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes, very low and stable background current and high resistance to surface fouling due to weak adsorption. These features endow the BDD electrode with potentially wide electrochemical applications, in such areas as wastewater treatment, electrosynthesis and electrochemical sensors. In this study, the characteristics of the BDD electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and evaluated by accelerated life test. The effects of manufacturing conditions on the BDD electrode were determined and remedies for negative effects were noted in order to improve the electrode lifetime in wastewater treatment. The lifetime of the BDD electrode was influenced by manufacturing conditions, such as surface roughness, seeding method and rate of introduction of gases into the reaction chamber. The results of this study showed that BDD electrodes manufactured using sanding media of different sizes resulted in the most effective electrode lifetime when the particle size of alumina used was from 75~106 μm (#150). Ultrasonic treatment was found to be more effective than polishing treatment in the test of seeding processes. In addition to this, BDD electrodes manufactured by introducing gases at different rates resulted in the most effective electrode lifetime when the introduced gas had a composition of hydrogen gas 94.5 vol.% carbon source gas 1.6 vol.% and boron source gas 3.9 vol.%.