In this study, the layered structures of immiscible Fe and Cu metals were employed to investigate the interface evolution through solid-state mixing. The pure Fe and Cu powders were cold-consolidated by high-pressure torsion (HPT) to fabricate a layered Cu-Fe-Cu structure. The microstructural evolutions and flow of immiscible Fe and Cu metals were investigated following different iterations of HPT processing. The results indicate that the HPTprocessed sample following four iterations showed a sharp chemical boundary between the Fe and Cu layers. In addition, the Cu powders exhibited perfect consolidation through HPT processing. However, the Fe layer contained many microcracks. After 20 iterations of HPT, the shear strain generated by HPT produced interface instability, which caused the initial layered structure to disappear.
In this research, a new medium-entropy alloy with an equiatomic composition of FeCuNi was designed using a phase diagram (CALPHAD) technique. The FeCuNi MEA was produced from pure iron, copper, and nickel powders through mechanical alloying. The alloy powders were consolidated via a high-pressure torsion process to obtain a rigid bulk specimen. Subsequently, annealing treatment at different conditions was conducted on the four turn HPT-processed specimen. The microstructural analysis indicates that an ultrafine-grained microstructure is achieved after post-HPT annealing, and microstructural evolutions at various stages of processing were consistent with the thermodynamic calculations. The results indicate that the post-HPT-annealed microstructure consists of a dual-phase structure with two FCC phases: one rich in Cu and the other rich in Fe and Ni. The kernel average misorientation value decreases with the increase in the annealing time and temperature, indicating the recovery of HPT-induced dislocations.
In this study, the behavior of densification of copper powders during high-pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature is investigated using the finite element method. The simulation results show that the center of the workpiece is the first to reach the true density of copper during the compressive stage because the pressure is higher at the center than the periphery. Subsequently, whole workpiece reaches true density after compression due to the high pressure. In addition, the effective strain is increased along the radius during torsional stage. After one rotation, the periphery shows that the effective strain is increased up to 25, which is extensive deformation. These high pressure and severe strain do not only play a key role in consolidation of copper powders but also make the matrix harder by grain refinement.
In this study, electrolytic copper powders were consolidated by high-pressure torsion process (HPT) which is the most effective process to produce bulk ultrafine grained and nanocrystalline metallic materials among various severe plastic deformation processes. The bulk samples were manufactured by the HPT process at 2.5 GPa and 1/2, 1 and 10 turns. After 10 turns, full densification was achieved by high pressure with shear deformation and ultrafine grained structure (average grain size of 677 nm) was observed by electron backscatter diffraction and a scanning transmission electron microscope.
In this work, powder metallurgy and severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion (HPT) approaches were combined to achieve both full density and grain refinement at the same time. Pure Cu powders were mixed with 5 and 10 vol% diamonds and consolidated into disc-shaped samples at room temperature by HPT at 1.25 GPa and 1 turn, resulting in ultrafine grained metallic matrices embedded with diamonds. Neither heating nor additional sintering was required with the HPT process so that in situ consolidation was successfully achieved at ambient temperature. Significantly refined grain structures of Cu metallic matrices with increasing diamond volume fractions were observed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), which enhanced the microhardness of the Cu-diamond composites.
In this study, powder metallurgy and severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion (HPT) approaches were combined to achieve both full density and grain refinement at the same time. Water-atomized pure iron powders were consolidated to disc-shaped samples at room temperature using HPT of 10 GPa up to 3 turns. The resulting microstructural size decreases with increasing strain and reaches a steady-state with nanocrystalline (down to ~250 nm in average grain size) structure. The water-atomized iron powders were deformed plastically as well as fully densified, as high as 99% of relative density by high pressure, resulting in effective grain size refinements and enhanced microhardness values.
In this paper, rapid solidified Mg-4.3Zn-0.7Y (at.%) alloy powders were prepared using an inert gas atomizer, followed by a severe plastic deformation technique of high pressure torsion (HPT) for consolidation of the powders. The gas atomized powders were almost spherical in shape, and grain size was as fine as less than due to rapid solidification. Plastic deformation responses during HPT were simulated using the finite element method, which shows in good agreement with the analytical solutions of a strain expression in torsion. Varying the HPT processing temperature from ambient to 473 K, the behavior of powder consolidation, matrix microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the compacts was investigated. The gas atomized powders were deformed plastically as well as fully densified, resulting in effective grain size refinements and enhanced microhardness values.
Bulk nanostructured metallic materials are generally synthesized by bottom-up processing which starts from powders for assembling bulk materials. In this study, the bottom-up powder metallurgy and High Pressure Torsion (HPT) approaches were combined to achieve both full density and grain refinement at the same time. After the HPT process at 473K, the disk samples reached a steady state condition when the microstructure and properties no longer evolve, and equilibrium boundaries with high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) were dominant. The well dispersed alumina particles played important role of obstacles to dislocation glide and to grain growth, and thus, reduced the grain size at elevated temperature. The small grain size with HAGBs resulted in high strength and good ductility.