Aluminum alloy-based additive manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a popular manufacturing process for the fabrication of complex parts in the automotive and aerospace industries. The addition of an inoculant to aluminum alloy powder has been demonstrated to effectively reduce cracking by promoting the formation of equiaxed grains. However, the optimization of the AM process parameters remains challenging owing to their variability. In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to predict the crack density of AM-processed Al alloy samples. RSM was performed by setting the process parameters and equiaxed grain ratio, which influence crack propagation, as independent variables and designating crack density as a response variable. The RSM-based quadratic polynomial models for crack-density prediction were found to be highly accurate. The relationship among the process parameters, crack density, and equiaxed grain fraction was also investigated using RSM. The findings of this study highlight the efficacy of RSM as a reliable approach for optimizing the properties of AM-processed parts with limited experimental data. These results can contribute to the development of robust AM processing strategies for the fabrication of highquality Al alloy components for various applications.
Although monitoring of radon has been extensively implemented throughout South Korea, the risk assessment has been mainly limited to indoor environments such as schools, workplaces, and multi-use facilities, and evaluations have normally been performed separately. In this study, the differences in radon exposure according to two groups (< 1 and 1-6 years old) were evaluated considering various indoor and outdoor environments, timeactivity patterns, variations in radon concentrations, and dwelling type (single detached and apartment house) using Monte-Carlo simulation. The distribution and representative values of radon concentration by micro-environments were confirmed through the Anders-Darling test, and a uniform distribution was applied in case of uncertainty. The effective dose ranged from 1.81 ± 1.19 to 2.81 ± 3.02mSv/y. Comparing the levels recommended by EPA, WHO, and ICRP with the value of the 95th percentile of this study, it was found that the results for those dwelling in detached houses exceeded recommended levels. Infants that spend a lot of time in homes with relatively high levels of concentration of radon are assessed to be somewhat more vulnerable to radon exposure.
The process optimization of directed energy deposition (DED) has become imperative in the manufacture of reliable products. However, an energy-density-based approach without a sufficient powder feed rate hinders the attainment of an appropriate processing window for DED-processed materials. Optimizing the processing of DEDprocessed Ti-6Al- 4V alloys using energy per unit area (Eeff) and powder deposition density (PDDeff) as parameters helps overcome this problem in the present work. The experimental results show a lack of fusion, complete melting, and overmelting regions, which can be differentiated using energy per unit mass as a measure. Moreover, the optimized processing window (Eeff = 44~47 J/mm2 and PDDeff = 0.002~0.0025 g/mm2) is located within the complete melting region. This result shows that the Eeff and PDDeff-based processing optimization methodology is effective for estimating the properties of DED-processed materials.
본 연구의 목적은 동남아시아 열대우림의 대표 산림 유형인 MDF, PSF 그리고 HF에서 지상부 바이오매스를 추정하는 것이다. 브루나이에서 MDF, PSF 그리고 HF를 대상으로 각각 3개 지역을 선정하여 20 m×20 m 조사구를 지역마다 9개씩 설치하고 흉고직경 10 cm 이상인 임목의 흉고직경을 측정하였다. 지상부 바이오매스는 측정된 흉고직경과 바이오매스 상대생장식을 활용하여 추정되었다. 지상부 바이오매스는 MDF, PSF 그리고 HF에서 각각 603.3±159.9, 305.9±23.4 그리고 284.3±19.3 Mg ha-1 순으로 나타났다. 산림 유형에 따라 지상부 바이오매스는 유의하게 차이가 있었으며, MDF에서 가장 높게 나타났다. 이는 흉고직경이 70 cm 이상인 거대목이 MDF에서 집중 되어 출현했기 때문이다. 이러한 연구 결과는 산림 유형에 따라 거대목의 출현빈도가 다르며, 나아가 거대목의 출현이 지상부 바이오매스 추정에 영향을 주는 요인 중 하나라는 의미를 가진다.
본 연구는 폐탄광에서 산림으로 복구된 지역의 임목, 낙엽층, 토양, 그리고 산림의 총 탄소 저장량을 추정하고, 수종별 탄소 저장량 차이를 비교하기 위해 수행되었다. 이를 위하여 강원도, 경상북도, 전라남도의 폐탄광 산림복구지에서 자작나무, 잣나무, 소나무류 (소나무, 리기다소나무, 곰솔)가 서로 다른 시기에 식재된 산림과 주변의 일반 산림을 조사하였다. 일반 산림에 비하여 폐탄광 산림복구지 내 낙엽층 및 토양 (ton C ha-1; 자작나무: 3.31±0.59 및 28.62±2.86, 잣나무: 3.60±0.93 및 22.26±5.72, 소나무류: 4.65±0.92 및 19.95±3.90), 그리고 산림의 총 탄소 저장량 (ton C ha-1; 자작나무: 54.81±7.22, 잣나무: 47.29±8.97, 소 나무류: 45.50±6.31)은 낮게 나타났으며, 임목 탄소 저장량 (ton C ha-1; 자작나무: 22.57±6.18, 잣나무: 21.17±8.76, 소나무류: 20.80±6.40)은 자작나무가 식재된 곳에서만 낮은 결과가 나타났다. 수종별로 토양 탄소 저장량을 제외한 임목, 낙엽층, 산림의 총 탄소 저장량에서 차이가 나타나지 않았으며, 임목 및 산림의 총 탄소 저장량은 복구 후 경과 시간에 따라 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 한편, 폐탄광 산림복 구지의 자작나무와 소나무류에서 토양 pH 및 CEC가 낮게 나타났으며, 수종별 불안정탄소, 유효인산, 미생물 바이오 매스 탄소가 일반 산림토양보다 2배 이상 낮은 결과를 보 였다. 폐탄광 산림복구지에 석회 및 유기질 비료의 시비와 경운을 통해 토양 성질을 개선하고, 가지치기 및 간벌 등 과 같은 산림관리로 임목 생육을 증진시키면 폐탄광 산림 복구지 내 탄소 저장량을 증가시킬 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
Selective laser melting (SLM), a type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology, leads a global manufacturing trend by enabling the design of geometrically complex products with topology optimization for optimized performance. Using this method, three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) data components can be built up directly in a layer-by-layer fashion using a high-energy laser beam for the selective melting and rapid solidification of thin layers of metallic powders. Although there are considerable expectations that this novel process will overcome many traditional manufacturing process limits, some issues still exist in applying the SLM process to diverse metallic materials, particularly regarding the formation of porosity. This is a major processing-induced phenomenon, and frequently observed in almost all SLM-processed metallic components. In this study, we investigate the mechanical anisotropy of SLM-produced 316L stainless steel based on microstructural factors and highly-oriented porosity. Tensile tests are performed to investigate the microstructure and porosity effects on mechanical anisotropy in terms of both strength and ductility.
In this paper, a new Co10Fe10Mn35Ni35Zn10 high entropy alloy (HEA) is identified as a strong candidate for the single face-centered cubic (FCC) structure screened using the upgraded TCFE2000 thermodynamic CALPHAD database. The Co10Fe10Mn35Ni35Zn10 HEA is fabricated using the mechanical (MA) procedure and pressure-less sintering method. The Co10Fe10Mn35Ni35Zn10 HEA, which consists of elements with a large difference in melting point and atomic size, is successfully fabricated using powder metallurgy techniques. The MA behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the Co10Fe10Mn35Ni35Zn10 HEA are systematically studied to understand the MA behavior and develop advanced techniques for fabricating HEA products. After MA, a single FCC phase is found. After sintering at 900℃, the microstructure has an FCC single phase with an average grain size of 18 μm. Finally, the Co10Fe10Mn35Ni35Zn10 HEA has a compressive yield strength of 302 MPa.
Harmonic structure materials are materials with a core–shell structure having a shell with a small grain size and a core with a relatively large grain size. They are in the spotlight because their mechanical properties reportedly feature strength similar to that of a sintered powder with a fine grain size and elongation similar to that of a sintered powder with a coarse grain size at the same time. In this study, the tensile properties, microstructure, and stretchflangeability of harmonic structure SUS304L made using powder metallurgy are investigated to check its suitability for automotive applications. The harmonic powders are made by mechanical milling and sintered using a spark plasma sintering method at 1173 K and a pressure of 50 MPa in a cylindrical die. The sintered powders of SUS304L having harmonic structure (harmonic SUS304L) exhibit excellent tensile properties compared with sintered powders of SUS304L having homogeneous microstructure. In addition, the harmonic SUS304L has excellent stretch-flangeability compared with commercial advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs) at a similar strength grade. Thus, the harmonic SUS304L is more suitable for automotive applications than conventional AHSSs because it exhibits both excellent tensile properties and stretch-flangeability.
In this study, the seismic performance of connections between filled composite beam (CG beams) and forming angle composite (FAC) column was experimentally evaluated. First, the bending tests were conducted on two CG beams and the axial tests were conducted on two FAC columns. Then, based on these preliminary test results, the cyclic loading test were performed on two interior connections between CG beam and FAC column. The main difference of two specimens is the plate shape of the CG beam. The test results showed that both specimens achieved the maximum story drift capacity over 0.04 radian which is required for special moment frame.
In this study, effect of core-shell structure on compaction behavior of harmonic powder is investigated. Harmonic powders are made by electroless plating method on Fe powders. Softer Cu shell encloses harder Fe core, and the average size of Fe core and thickness of Cu shell are 34.3 μm and 3.2 μm, respectively. The powder compaction procedure is processed with pressure of 600 MPa in a cylindrical die. Due to the low strength of Cu shell regions, the harmonic powders show better densification behavior compared with pure Fe powders. Finite element method (FEM) is performed to understand the roll of core-shell structure. Based on stress and strain distributions of FEM results, it is concluded that the early stage of powder compaction of harmonic powders mainly occurs at the shell region. FEM results also well predict porosity of compacted materials.
In recent years, industrial demands for superior mechanical properties of powder metallurgy steel components with low cost are rapidly growing. Sinter hardening that combines sintering and heat treatment in continuous one step is cost-effective. The cooling rate during the sinter hardening process dominates material microstructures, which finally determine the mechanical properties of the parts. This research establishes a numerical model of the relation between various cooling rates and microstructures in a sinter hardenable material. The evolution of a martensitic phase in the treated microstructure during end quench tests using various cooling media of water, oil, and air is predicted from the cooling rate, which is influenced by cooling conditions, using the finite element method simulations. The effects of the cooling condition on the microstructure of the sinter hardening material are found. The obtained limiting size of the sinter hardening part is helpful to design complicate shaped components.
In this study, nano-scale copper powders were reduction treated in a hydrogen atmosphere at the relativelyhigh temperature of 350℃ in order to eliminate surface oxide layers, which are the main obstacles for fabricating anano/ultrafine grained bulk parts from the nano-scale powders. The changes in composition and microstructure beforeand after the hydrogen reduction treatment were evaluated by analyzing X-ray diffraction (XRD) line profile patternsusing the convolutional multiple whole profile (CMWP) procedure. In order to confirm the result from the XRD lineprofile analysis, transmitted electron microscope observations were performed on the specimen of the hydrogen reduc-tion treated powders fabricated using a focused ion beam process. A quasi-statically compacted specimen from the nano-scale powders was produced and Vickers micro-hardness was measured to verify the potential of the powders as thebasis for a bulk nano/ultrafine grained material. Although the bonding between particles and the growth in size of theparticles occurred, crystallites retained their nano-scale size evaluated using the XRD results. The hardness results dem-onstrate the usefulness of the powders for a nano/ultrafine grained material, once a good consolidation of powders isachieved.
In this study, nanocrystalline Cu-Ni bulk materials with various compositions were cold compacted by a shock compaction method using a single-stage gas gun system. Since the oxide layers on powder surface disturbs bonding between powder particles during the shock compaction process, each nanopowder was hydrogen-reduced to remove the oxide layers. X-ray peak analysis shows that hydrogen reduction successfully removed the oxide layers from the nano powders. For the shock compaction process, mixed powder samples with various compositions were prepared using a roller mixer. After the shock compaction process, the density of specimens increased up to 95% of the relative density. Longitudinal cross-sections of the shock compacted specimen demonstrates that a boundary between two powders are clearly distinguished and agglomerated powder particles remained in the compacted bulk. Internal crack tended to decrease with an increase in volumetric ratio of nano Cu powders in compacted bulk, showing that nano Cu powders has a higher coherency than nano Ni powders. On the other hand, hardness results are dominated by volume fraction of the nano Ni powder. The crystalline size of the shock compacted bulk materials was greatly reduced from the initial powder crystalline size since the shock wave severely deformed the powders.
In this study, nanocrystalline nickel powders were cold compacted by a dynamic compaction method usinga single-stage gas gun system. A bending test was conducted to measure the bonding strengths of the compacted regionsand microstructures of the specimen were analyzed using a scanning electron microscopy. The specimen was separatedinto two parts by a horizontal crack after compaction. Density test shows that the powder compaction occurred only inthe upper part of the specimen. Brittle fracture was occurred during the bending test of the compact sample. Dispersionof shock energy due to spalling highly affected the bonding status of the nanocrystalline nickel powder.
Bulk nanostructured copper was fabricated by a shock compaction method using the planar shock wavegenerated by a single gas gun system. Nano sized powders, average diameter of 100 nm, were compacted into the cap-sule and target die, which were designed to eliminate the effect of undesired shock wave, and then impacted with analuminum alloy target at 400 m/s. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the shock compact specimen were ana-lyzed using an optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and micro indentation. Hardness resultsshowed low values (approximately 45~80 Hv) similar or slightly higher than those of conventional coarse grained com-mercial purity copper. This result indicates the poor quality of bonding between particles. Images from OM and SEMalso confirmed that no strong bonding was achieved between them due to the insufficient energy and surface oxygenlayer of the powders.
In this study, porous titanium samples were manufactured by space holder methods using two kinds of urea and sodium chloride space holders. Three-dimensional pore structures were obtained by a computed-tomography (CT) tech- nique and utilized for finite element analysis in order to investigate the mechanical properties. The CT-based finite ele- ment analyses were in better agreement with the experimental results than unit cell model-based analyses. Both the experimental and CT-based results showed the same tendency that the elastic modulus decreased with increasing the porosities. The total porosity of the bulk body plays a key role in determining the elastic modulus of porous materials.