Makgeolli’s fermentation characteristics and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated to examine the effect of Prunus mume extract addition. Makgeolli, with the addition of various levels (0, 1, 3, and 5%) of Prunus mume extract (PME), was brewed with fermenting agents, Ipguk and Nuruk. The alcohol content of all samples remarkably increased during the initial 3 days and then gradually increased up to over 18% by the end of fermentation (7 days for Nuruk and 15 days for Ipguk). Although the alcohol content was slightly reduced and acidity was increased with the concentration of PME, there was no other negative effect of PME on the fermentation of Makgeolli. The contents of total phenols and flavonoids for Ipguk samples were higher than those for Nuruk samples, and these values significantly increased at over 3% PME addition. As the PME content increased, the antioxidant activity increased for both Nuruk and Ipguk samples. Only Makgeolli with Ipguk had vigorous antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus at over 3% addition of PME. These results indicate that PME can be an effective natural additive for enhancing Makgeolli’s antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.