Purpose: This study aimed to perform an integrated literature review to identify evidence for developing a problem-based learning (PBL) method based on a simulation education program for nursing students. Methods: In May 2022, 10 electronic databases were used to conduct a literature search using the keywords simulation, PBL, nursing, and education in Korean and English. Finally, 21 studies were selected. Results: There were more single-type simulation studies than studies using a hybrid model that combined two simulation types. Most simulation studies were for a single domain of adult nursing rather than for various integrated domains. Four studies (19%) applied a theory during debriefing, but most did not conduct a systematically structured debriefing. All studies selected attitude and competency as the outcome variables to study the effects of the intervention. Two variables (attitude and competency) or three variables (knowledge [or skill], attitude, and competency) were typically selected, and their effects were measured. Conclusion: PBL based on simulation education can be effective in improving nursing practice competency in nursing students. Future studies ought to develop interprofessional education programs based on PBL simulations through multidisciplinary cooperation.