Modification of the surface of raw activated carbon using chemical solvents can significantly improve the adsorption performance of activated carbon. Triethylenetetramine is one of the most important chemical solvents used to modify raw activated carbon for formaldehyde removal indoor. We conducted the liquid impregnation experiments at different initial concentrations, temperatures, adsorbent dosage and time ranges to fully investigate the adsorption of triethylenetetramine on the surface of raw activated carbon for modification. We found that the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-first-order kinetic model fit quite well with the experimental data and the R2 are 0.9883 and 0.9954, respectively. The theoretical maximum adsorption capacity is 166.67 mg/g. The change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), enthalpy change (ΔH0) and entropy change (ΔS0) were also calculated to study the direction and driving force of the liquid adsorption process. In order to understand the adsorption process at the molecular level, a new activated carbon model based on the actual physical and chemical properties of activated carbon was carefully established in the Materials Studio to simulate the liquid-phase adsorption. The pore structure, elemental composition, functional group content, density, pore volume, and porosity of the activated carbon model converge close to the actual activated carbon and the adsorption isotherms obtained from the simulation agree well with the experimental results. The results show that the adsorption of triethylenetetramine on activated carbon is a spontaneous, endothermic and monolayer physical adsorption process.
Virtual reality (VR) simulation in nursing education, especially in the teaching of VR simulations just prior to clinical practice, has the potential to enhance the effectiveness of clinical practice and better prepare nursing students for patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a preclinical VR simulation education program on the development of critical thinking, self-efficacy, problem-solving ability, and perceived clinical competency among undergraduate nursing students. The study was conducted between May and June 2021 using a pretest-posttest design with a control group. A total of 42 nursing students were recruited through convenience sampling from two separate classes. The intervention group participated in VR simulation education, while the control group engaged in lecture-based education, before beginning clinical practice. Assessments were conducted before preclinical education and after completing clinical practice using structured questionnaires. The data was analyzed using chi-square tests, independent t-tests, and ANCOVA. The findings indicated that the intervention group had a significantly higher score in perceived clinical competency compared to the control group (F = 5.25, p = 0.029) after controlling for pretest scores. However, there were no statistically significant differences in critical thinking, self-efficacy, or problem-solving abilities between the two groups. These findings suggest that preclinical VR simulation education is partially effective in preparing nursing students for their clinical practice, underscoring the need for a balanced educational approach that integrates VR with clinical practice to develop a full spectrum of nursing skills and knowledge.
This study analyzes the body shapes of lower-body obese female adolescents and proposes a slacks pattern suitable for their body type. Lower-body obesity is a prevalent type of teenage obesity, and our proposals aim to improve consumer satisfaction in ready-to-wear clothes across this demographic. We first observe characteristics of obese lower bodies, noting significantly above-average thigh and hip circumference. These figures indicate a high degree of curvature in obese lower bodies, along with a large drop value. Leveraging this data, we develop a novel slacks pattern using 3D avatars in a virtual simulation system. The formulas for the main areas of the pattern are as follows: front waist girth W/4+0.75cm+0.5cm, back waist girth W/4+0.5cm– 0.5cm, front hip girth H/4+1.25cm–0.5cm, back hip girth H/4+2cm+0.5cm, front crotch extension H/16+0.5cm, back crotch extension H/8+1cm. Results from appearance evaluations show that this pattern minimizes strain rate on the waist and hips, and its average score is significantly higher than that of an alternative pattern that was also evaluated. The minimized strain rate and high average score indicate that our pattern assigns a sufficient amount of space to the appropriate areas. Based on these results, we expect our research to inform slacks pattern development and production for obese consumers of all types.
Concerning the apprehensions about naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) residues, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its member nations have acknowledged the imperative to ensure the radiation safety of NORM industries. Residues with elevated radioactivity concentrations are predominantly produced during NORM processing, in the form of scale and sludge, referred to as technically enhanced NORM (TENORM). Substantial quantities of TENORM residues have been released externally due to the dismantling of NORM processing factories. These residues become concentrated and fixed in scale inside scrap pipes. To assess the radioactivity of scales in pipes of various shapes, a Monte Carlo simulation was employed to determine dose rates corresponding to the action level in TENORM regulations for different pipe diameters and thicknesses. Onsite gamma spectrometry was conducted on a scrap iron pipe from the titanium dioxide manufacturing factory. The measured dose rate on the pipe enabled the estimation of NORM concentration in the pipe scale onsite. The derived action level in dose rate can be applied in the NORM regulation procedure for on-site judgments.
In this study, the impact load resulting from collision with the fuel rods of surrogate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies was measured during a rolling test based on an analysis of the data from surrogate SNF-loaded sea transportation tests. Unfortunately, during the sea transportation tests, excessive rolling motion occurred on the ship during the test, causing the assemblies to slip and collide with the canister. Hence, we designed and conducted a separate test to simulate rolling in sea transportation to determine whether such impact loads can occur under normal conditions of SNF transport, with the test conditions for the fuel assembly to slide within the basket experimentally determined. Rolling tests were conducted while varying the rolling angle and frequency to determine the angles and frequencies at which the assemblies experienced slippage. The test results show that slippage of SNF assemblies can occur at angles of approximately 14° or greater because of rolling motion, which can generate impact loads. However, this result exceeds the conditions under which a vessel can depart for coastal navigation, thus deviating from the normal conditions required for SNF transport. Consequently, it is not necessary to consider such loads when evaluating the integrity of SNFs under normal transportation conditions.
The rack cylinder is an important part of the pile leg structure of the jack up platform. Because of its complex structure, the flow field around the rack cylinder is different from that around the ordinary cylinder, which brings difficulties to the research of the rack cylinder. In this paper, using CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) solved the flow field of chords with different rack height and rack width under different KC and Re, the characteristics of the flow field around the cylinder with rack are obtained. The results show that Re, KC, rack height and rack width all have different effects on the flow field. When Re and KC are constant, Cd will increase with the increase of rack height ratio, the change of Cd and Cl is not significant, while the change of Cd and Cl varies with Re when the chord structure is fixed.
본 연구는 간호학생을 대상으로 뇌졸중 표준화 환자를 활용한 시뮬레이션기반 교육 경험을 심 층적으로 이해하고 이를 통해 경험의 본질을 파악하고자 함이다. 자료수집은 2023년 6월 25일부터 자료가 포화상태에 이르게 된 2023년 8월 25일까지 간호학생 10명을 대상으로 심층 개별 인터뷰를 통해 수집되었 고, Colaizzi가 제시한 현상학적 연구 분석 방법으로 분석되었다. 주요 인터뷰 질문은 “뇌졸중 표준화 환자 를 활용한 교육 경험은 당신에게 어떤 의미가 있었나요?”이었고, 수집된 데이터는 내용분석을 이용하여 분 석하였다. 연구결과, 총 7개의 의미있는 진술이 추출되었고, 도출된 주제모음은 ‘간호 교육적 차원’, ‘개인 적 차원’, ‘간호 직무적 차원’으로 나타났다. 이로써 뇌졸중 표준화 환자 활용은 간호학생들의 실무역량 습 득과 뇌졸중 환자간호에 대한 이해를 높였고, 표준화 환자 활용에 있어 긍정적인 요인강화와 제한된 요인 들을 파악하여 실무역량을 증진하기 위한 시뮬레이션기반 교육전략이 필요함을 알 수 있다.
컴퓨터 시스템의 성능 및 다양한 전산모사 프로그램의 발전으로 더 복잡한 원소로 이루어진 화학시스템의 해석이 가능해지고, 그에 따라 분자동역학 전사모사를 활용한 연구가 활발히 이루어지고 있다. 특히, 기존에는 실험위주로 진행되던 고분자 막에 대한 기체 투과 특성을 계산하는 연구가 관심을 받고 있고, 식품포장, 의약품등에 사용되고 있는 기체차단성 막 에 대한 분자동역학 연구가 많이 이루어지고 있다. 최근 실크 피브로인을 이용해 코팅막을 만들었을 때 기체 차단 효과가 나 타난다는 보고가 있었고, 본 연구에서는 이러한 실크 피브로인을 활용해 복합막을 만들었을 때 산소 차단 효과가 나타나는지 확인하고자 분자동역학 전산모사를 이용해 연구를 진행하였다. 단일 모델을 제작하고 기체 투과 특성을 계산하고 실험값과 비교를 통해 모델이 실제 실험 결과를 반영하는 것을 확인하였고, 실제 복합막 모델을 만들어 고분자 내에서 기체 이동경로 분석을 진행한 결과 산소 분자가 피브로인 영역을 통과하지 못하고 막히는 것을 보여주었다. 따라서, 실크 피브로인이 도입된 복합막이 산소 차단 성능이 우수하여, 식품포장 등에 유용할 것으로 기대된다.
PURPOSES : This study aims to identify the thresholds at which various factors affecting traffic crashes lead to actual traffic crashes METHODS : To verify the thresholds, we created scenarios and ran simulations with a combination of factors that affect traffic crashes. Lateral offset and minimum TTC were used to evaluate whether an incident occurred. RESULTS : In the first scenario, the most significant factor affecting traffic crashes is curvature, and it was found that the smaller the curvature(200 meters or less), the greater the deviation from the lane. And in the second scenario, especially the passenger car scenario, no accidents occurred when the curvature was greater than 90 meters and the speed was 40 km/h or less. The smaller the curvature and the higher the speed, the more accidents occurred. Similarly, in the bus scenario, no accidents occurred when the curvature was 120 meters or more and the speed was 30 km/h or less. Also, accidents tended to occur when the curvature was smaller and the speed was higher. CONCLUSIONS : Through this study, we derived the thresholds of factors that influence traffic crashes. The results are expected to help design and operate roads in the future and contribute to reducing traffic crashes.
PURPOSES : This study evaluates the effectiveness of traffic flow optimization when giving safety strategy guidance to a connected autonomous vehicle (CAV) based on information received through infrastructure cooperation in a V2X environment for non-signal intersection. METHODS : To evaluate the effectiveness of safety strategy guidance based on developed traffic flow control algorithm at a non-signalized intersection, it was implemented on simulation. A scenario based on the Level of Service (LOS) and the market penetration rate(MPR) of autonomous vehicles was established. The simulation results were divided into safety, operation, and environment to evaluate the effect, and the effect of optimizing traffic flow was finally derived through the integrated evaluation score. RESULTS : As a result, when safety strategy guidance was provided, the number of conflicts and CO emissions decreased by about 29% and about 15%, improving safety and environmental performance. In the case of operation, the mean of delay time was increased overall by 1%, but in the case of MPR 50 and above, the delay time was reduced by about 38%, thereby increasing operation. Finally, the aspect of traffic flow optimization, effectiveness of safety strategy guidance was derived through the integrated evaluation score, and the average integrated evaluation score improved from MPR 20 or higher. CONCLUSIONS : Providing guidance had the effect of optimizing traffic flow at a non-signal intersection. In the future, V2X communications will provide CAV with algorithm-based guidance developed in this study to control driving behavior. it will support safe and efficient driving at non-signal intersections.
This study aimed to explore nursing students' experience of learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a web-based virtual simulation (vSim) through analysis of the reflection journals. Method: From June to July 2020, data were collected from 48 fourth-year nursing students who performed the simulation by reviewing prompt feedback on their CPR performance. The contents of the reflection journals were analyzed using NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Results: Nursing students experienced unfamiliarity with the English-based virtual environment as well as psychological pressure and anxiety about emergencies. Incorrect interventions were identified in the following order of frequency: violation of defibrillator guidelines, missing fundamental nursing care, error in applying an electrocardiogram monitor, inadequate initial response to cardiac arrest, insufficient chest compression, and inadequate ventilation. Lastly, the participants learned the importance of embodied knowledge, for knowing and acting accurately and reacting immediately, and their attitudes as nurses, such as responsibility, calmness, and attentiveness. Learning strategies included memory retention through repetition, real-time feedback analysis, pre-learning, and imagining action sequences in advance. The level of achievement, time required, CPR quality, and confidence improved with behavior-modification strategies developed through self-reflection. Conclusion: Educational interventions that are based on understanding accurate algorithms can strengthen selfawareness of mistakes to improve efficient imparting of CPR education.
We aimed to develop and analyze the effectiveness of a “Room of Errors” simulation program for educating nursing students in patient safety management. Methods: This study used a quasi-experimental method (two group, before and after evaluation) and enrolled 35 nursing students as the participants. Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaire and analyzed through descriptive statistics and the independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test using SPSS/WIN Statistics version 25.0. Results: After completing the “Room of Errors” simulation program, the participants’ score of intention and confidence in performance for patient safety management in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Conclusion: A “Room of Errors” simulation education program for nursing students effectively increased the intention and confidence in performance of nursing students in patient safety management.
한우에게 급여하는 사료 내 에너지원의 종류에 따라 반추위 미생물의 아미노산 조성에 차이가 있는지를 조사하고자 본 연구를 수행하였다. 국내 한우 비육우 사육에 주로 이용되는 에너지원 사료인 옥수수(T1), 생미강(T2), 소맥(T3) 그리고 소맥피(T4)로 반추위 환경과 유사한 연속식 배양기를 이용하여 72시간까지 배양을 진행하였다. 배양이 진행되는 동안 6시간 간격으로 배양액의 발효 성상을 확인하였으며 pH, NH3-N이 일정하게 유지되는 것을 확인하였으며, 배양 종료 시점인 72시간대에 미생물체 단백질 합성량(MPS), 미생물의 아미노산 조성 및 미생물 균총 변화를 분석하였다. 배양액의 pH는 모든 처리구에서 배양 기간동안 5.5~7.0을 유지하였다. Total VFA 농도는 T1이 23.13 mM으로 가장 낮았고, T4가 29.93 mM으로 가장 높았다(p<0.05). A (acetate) :P (propionate) 비율은 T1이 1.48로 가장 낮았으며, T4가 2.81로 가장 높게 나타났다 (p<0.05). Butyrate는 T1이 2.37 mM으로 가장 낮았으며, T2, T3 그리고 T4는 4.37~4.58 mM으로 차이가 없었다(p<0.05). MPS는 T2 (332.5 mg/L)와 T3 (320.2 mg/L)가 높았고 T1 (137.5 mg/L)와 T4 (154.2 mg/L)로 낮게 나타났다(p<0.05). DGGE band 분석결과 모든 처리구는 57.5 % 이하의 유사도가 나타났다. 미생물의 총 아미노산 함량은 T1 (31.59 %)과 T3 (31.33 %)가 가장 높았으며, T2 (20.09 %)가 가장 낮았다 (p<0.05). 이는 급여된 사료 내 총 아미노산 함량과 반대되는 결과로 나타났다. 따라서, 본 연구에서 한우 급여 에너지원 사료에 따른 반추위 내 미생물 발효 특성과 미생물체 단백질 합성량이 미생물 군집에 영향을 미치며 이에 따라 미생물의 총 아미노산 함량에 영향을 미친다는 것을 확인하였다.
An “online respiratory infectious disease nursing simulation course” was developed to strengthen the nursing competency in respiratory infectious disease. Methods: In this methodological study, an “online respiratory infectious disease nursing simulation course” was developed using the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) model and evaluated using a one-group pre-post quasi-experimental design to ascertain the respiratory infectious disease knowledge, performance confidence, and clinical performance of 37 nursing students. Results: The online course comprised 17 sessions categorized as follows: seven theory, five at-home laboratory training, two case study, and three simulation sessions. All the nursing students engaged in the course successfully fulfilled its requirements by attending all 17 sessions and passing the clinical performance examination. The knowledge, confidence, and clinical performance (t=-6.60, -10.62, and –6.36, respectively; p<.001 for all) pertaining to respiratory infectious disease significantly increased among participants after the concluding simulation session, compared with their pre-scores obtained prior to the course participation. Conclusion: The “online respiratory infectious disease nursing simulation course” significantly improved the nursing knowledge, performance confidence, and clinical performance ability of nursing students in managing respiratory infectious diseases.
The study aim was to develop and test the effects of integrated simulation pertaining to patients with schizophrenia using a hypertensive crisis module for nursing students. Methods: This pilot study with seven undergraduate nursing students used a single group, pre-post test design. Integrated simulation pertaining to patients with schizophrenia using a hypertensive crisis module was developed based on the ADDIE model (i.e., Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation), expert meetings with subject professors, a literature review, a preliminary survey, and focus group interviews. Data were collected and measured for general characteristics of the study participants, critical thinking disposition, problem-solving, clinical judgment, self-efficacy, simulation design, and simulation effectiveness. Qualitative contents were analyzed through focus group interviews. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in class design, critical thinking disposition, problem-solving, clinical judgment, and self-efficacy after applying the integrated simulation module. Based on the data obtained from the focus group interviews of study participants, the following four categories were established: “Integrating knowledge and applying it to practice,” “Nursing in unexpected situations,” “Challenged to be an expert,” and “Ensuring receptive and psychological safety in simulation practice.” Conclusion: An integrated simulation module was developed to integrate the nursing problems associated with individual subjects beyond the scope of one subject, and the effect was verified by applying it
This study aimed to investigate the impact of implementing team-based learning (TBL) in postpartum nursing simulation practical education for nursing college students. Methods: The study design was a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. 128 nursing students divided into two groups: 61 in the experiment group and 67 in the control group. During the winter break in January 2023, students participating in simulation practicals were assigned to the control group, while students participating in simulation practicals during the regular semester (April 2023) were assigned to the experimental group, to prevent crossontamination between the groups due to experimental treatment. Both groups completed selfdministered questionnaires to assess self-directed learning abilities, collaborative self-efficacy, academic achievement, and learning satisfaction. Results: The experimental group showed significantly better compared to the control group, the experimental group showed higher levels of academic achievement and learning satisfaction. Conclusion: It was evident that TBL applied to postpartum nursing simulation practical education is a pedagogical teaching strategy that enhances academic achievement and learning satisfaction. It is necessary to develop and apply team-based simulation practical education not only for challenging obstetric cases but also for labor and delivery nursing, antepartum nursing, and other related areas in clinical practice.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simulation-based Korea advanced life support training on new nurses' knowledge, clinical performance ability, performer confidence, and learning satisfaction. Methods: This is a non-equivalent controlled pre-post quasi-experimental study. A simulation-based CPR training program was applied to 37 new nurses. Results: The experimental group scored lower on emergency management knowledge (83.65±7.61) than the control group (84.55±9.22), which was not significant (t=-4.46, p=.657). However, the clinical performance ability score was significantly higher in the experimental group (109.59±9.98) than in the control group (100.24±11.87) (t=3.581, p <.001). Performer confidence was significantly higher in the experimental group (23.43±3.29) than in the control group (19.90±3.85) (t=3.69, p〈.001). In addition, the learning satisfaction score of the experimental group (96.16±5.64) was significantly higher than the control group (88.42±11.13) (t=3.72, p< .001). Conclusion: This study confirmed that simulation training is an efficient way to improve new nurses' clinical performance ability, and performer confidence. Therefore, applying simulation training in scenarios can improve new nurses' work competence and contribute to improving the quality of patient care.
The purpose of this study was to identify the factors related to the problem-solving ability of nursing students who experienced simulation training. Methods: A descriptive survey study was performed using a structured questionnaires consisting of a learning flow state scale, nursing student’s anxiety and self-confidence with clinical decision making scale, simulation design scale, and problem-solving ability scale. Data were collected from 154 nursing students in five nursing schools located in D city and G province. Data were analyzed by frequencies, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression with IBM SPSS Statistics 19.0. Results: The significant factors associated to the problem-solving ability of nursing students who experienced simulation training were simulation design characteristics (β=.34, p<.001), learning flow (β=.25, p=.001), and self-confidence with clinical decision making (β=.23, p=.001). These factors explained 46.5% of problem-solving ability. Conclusion: To improve the problem-solving ability of nursing students, the simulation module should be designed with high fidelity.
The purpose of this study was to develop a nursing education program using Web-based simulation for the care of patients with intracranial pressure. An additional aim was to verify the effectiveness of nursing knowledge, problem-solving competency, a critical thinking disposition, and the expectation of learning transfer. Methods: This was an experimental study using repeated measures with a nonequivalent control group. The participants were senior nursing students, randomly assigned to experimental (n=30) and control (n=30) groups. The experimental group participated in a nursing education program that included Web-based lectures, pre-briefing, Web-based simulation, and debriefing, whereas the control group’s program included only Web-based lectures. Results: A significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups in problem-solving competency (F=5.84, p=.005), critical thinking disposition (F=4.25, p=.021), and the expectation of learning transfer (t=2.30, p<.025). Also, a significant interaction between time and group was found in problem-solving competency and critical thinking disposition. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the education program using Web-based simulation positively affected nursing students’ problem-solving competency, critical thinking disposition, and the expectation of learning transfer. Therefore, this program can be considered a valuable aid in educating nursing students.