Background: Research has been conducted on pain neuroscience education (PNE) for the relief of pain and symptoms associated with chronic neck pain (CNP). Focusing on the neurophysiology and neurobiology of chronic pain, pain processing, and particularly the function of the central nervous system for chronic pain, PNE helps patients to understand the causes of pain.
Objectives: To investigate and systematically review interventional studies on the effectiveness of PNE for patients with CNP and to analyze the effect size by performing a meta-analysis.
Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.
Methods: The following databases and electronic collections will be searched for primary studies without time limits: PubMed, MEDLINE, OVID Embase, and CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library. Reference lists from identified studies will be manually hand-searched for additional relevant works. Patients 18 years of age and older with nonspecific neck pain lasting 3 months or longer will be included in the study, with exclusion criteria as follows: cancer pain, fractures of the spine or surgical intervention, cognitive impairment that does not allow the patient to follow the PNE program, pregnancy, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and other related pathologies that may prevent full participation in the PNE program. There are no geographic restrictions; however, non- English studies will be excluded.
Discussion: This study aims to evaluate the effects of PNE on pain and disability in chronic neck pain. Its results will help clarify whether the use of PNE alone can improve chronic pain. The advantages of systematic reviews include clear definitions and inclusion and exclusion criteria, standardized search formats, and objective independent reviews.
Background: Previous studies have reported that improving the spinal stability could be more effective in the prevention and treatment of recurrence. Lumbar stabilization exercise is known to strengthen the lumbar extension muscles and enhance physical, psychological and social functions.
Objectives: To investigated the effect of lumbar spiral stenosis on the kinetic link training and lumbar stabilization exercise.
Design: A randomized controlled trial.
Methods: Study was preformed by randomly allocated 28 LSS participants into a kinetic link training group (KLT, n=14) and a lumbar stabilization exercise group (LSE, n=14). Kinetic link training and lumbar stabilization exercise were performed to subjects in both groups 5 times a week for 6 weeks. To verify the effect of LSS, changes in VAS, ODI, and proprioception before and after intervention were observed.
Results: In KLT, statistically significant changes were found in VAS, ODI, and Proprioception before and after intervention. In LSE, there were significant changes in VAS and ODI before and after intervention. KLT and LSE before and after intervention indicated significant differences in proprioception.
Conclusion: KLT and LSE are applied to LSS, there are effects of pain decrease, lumbar recovery and proprioception improvement.
Background: Generally, rounded shoulders may occur when an individual habitually takes a relaxed, slouched posture. Although various studies on the round shoulder exist, studies on the effect of improvement of thoracic mobilization on the round shoulder are insufficient.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of thoracic mobilization on round shoulders and pulmonary capacities. Design: Randomized controlled trials.
Methods: Twenty subjects were randomly allocated into an exercise group (n=10) and a mobilization group (n=10). To quantify the round shoulder before and after the intervention, the distance between the acromion and the table surface was measured, and the pulmonary capacities were also measured. The intervention program was conducted twice a week for 6 weeks. The exercise group performed corrective exercise, and the mobilization group performed both corrective exercise and thoracic mobilization.
Results: The round shoulder in both groups was significantly decreased (P<.05), and the pulmonary capacities were significantly improved (P<.05). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>.05).
Conclusion: The combination of corrective exercise with stretching and strengthening exercises led to the improvement of round shoulders and pulmonary capacities, no additional benefits were detected with thoracic mobilization.
Background: Since chronic ankle instability (CAI) can adversely affect postural control, core stability exercises have been investigated to improve postural control. However, only a few studies have focused on kinetic chain exercises. Objectives: To investigate the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) core stability exercises on static and dynamic balance abilities and vertical jump height in CAI patients. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: The 18 participants enrolled in this study were randomly divided into the OKC group (n=9) and CKC group (n=9). Static and dynamic balance abilities and vertical jump height were measured before and after the intervention. The intervention program comprising OKC or CKC core stability exercises depending on the groups was conducted for 30 min twice a week for 6 weeks in 12 sessions. Results: In the OKC group, static measured with the eyes open or closed and dynamic balance abilities were significantly improved after the intervention (P<.05). In the CKC group, dynamic balance ability was significantly increased (P<.05). A significant difference was observed in static balance ability measured with the eyes open between the two groups (P<.05). Vertical jump height was significantly increased after the intervention in both groups (P<.05). Conclusion: OKC and CKC core stability exercises improve static and dynamic balance abilities and vertical jump height in CAI patients. Specifically, the OKC core stability exercise was more effective in enhancing static balance ability than the CKC core stability exercise.
Background: Although rectus femoris (RF) eccentric training and static stretching (SS) have been reported effectively on lumbar flexibility, and muscle architecture, most studies are results using machines and long-term effects. Therefore, we want to investigate the effect of Reverse Nordic Hamstring Exercise (RNHE), a self-eccentric training, by immediately comparing it with SS. Objectives: To compare the RNHE and SS of RF to show the effects of lumbar flexibility, and fascicle length (FL). Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: A total of 30 study subjects were randomly allocated into an experimental group(Reverse Nordic Hamstring Exercise) and a control group(Static Stretching). Before and after the intervention, the subject performed fingertip to floor test (FFT) to evaluate the flexibility of the lumbar spine and measured FL through the SONON 300L (Healcerion Inc., Seoul, South Korea). Results: There was a significant effect on lumbar flexibility within both groups (P<.05), also there were clear results between the two groups (P<.05). FL showed a significant increase in RNHE (P<.05), but not in SS, and there was a no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: RNHE is effective in improving lumbar flexibility, and FL of RF muscle.
Background: Although the Schroth exercise is widely used in idiopathic scoliosis, the Schroth exercise with kinesiotaping is not. And, little research has examined their effectiveness.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of Schroth exercise with kinesiotaping on idiopathic scoliosis. Design: A randomized controlled trial.
Methods: Participants with hamstring tightness were allocated into the Schroth exercise with kinesiotaping group (SETG, n=12) and the schroth exercise group (SEG, n=11). Participants groups performed Schroth exercise with kinesiotaping or Schroth exercise according to group assignment. To identify changes in spine alignment and balance were performed at pre- and postexercise. Results: Significant changes occurred in spine alignment, balance ability (X mean, LOS forward, LOS right) after exercise in SETG (P<.05). SETG was a significant difference in balance ability (LOS right) than SEG.
Conclusion: Schroth exercise with kinesiotaping are effective in improving spine alignment and balance ability in idiopathic scoliosis.
Background: Spinal Mobilization is one of the manual therapy technique that clinicians have used to treat pain, however, there is still a lack of research on changes in strength in healthy people.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of posterior-anterior lumbar mobilization on lower limb strength in healthy individuals.
Design: Two-group pretest-posttest design.
Methods: In this study, 23 healthy subjects aged 20 years were assigned to 12 lumbar mobilization group (LMG) and 12 sham group (SG) to perform intervention and measurement through pre- and post-design. Intervention was performed in LMG with grade III~IV on L3-5 of the lumbar spine, and lumbar mobilization was performed for each segment. After intervention, knee flexion and extension strength were measured. To measure the main effect on muscle strength, a comparative analysis was conducted using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: In LMG, knee flexor and extensor strength were increased significantly at 60°/s (P<.05). In addition, the extensors of LMG and SG were significantly different only at 60°/s, and the flexors were significantly different between groups at both 60°/s and 180°/s (P<.05).
Conclusion: In healthy individuals, lumbar mobilization results in improvement of strength of knee flexor and extensor, and additional experiments on the effect of mobilization on the lumbar spine on functional changes in the lower limbs will be needed.
Background: Although studies on physical motor learning through motor imagery training have been conducted in various fields, studies on its effectiveness are still considered insufficient.
Objective: To investigate the effect of motor imagery training and balance training on static balance of asymptomatic adults in their 20s.
Design: A quasi-experimental study.
Methods: Thirty-six adults in their 20s who passed the tandem stance test were randomized to the motor imagery training group (MIG, n=12), motor imagery with balance training group (MIBG, n=12), and balance training group (BG, n=12). Each group underwent their respective interventions three times a week for four weeks, and changes in static balance were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance.
Results: Trace length was significantly lower in the MIBG than in the MIG and BG (P<.05), and a significant reduction in trace length in the MIBG was observed after the intervention as compared to the baseline (P<.05). Furthermore, a significantly lower velocity was observed in the MIBG than in the MIG and BG (P<.05), and a significant reduction of velocity in the MIBG was more observed after the intervention compared to the baseline (P<.05).
Conclusion: These results suggest that motor imagery training enhance static balance in healthy college students.
Background: Neurodynamic mobilization is divided into slider mobilization and tensioner mobilization. However, movement direction in neurodynamic mobilization has been overlooked in neurodynamic exercise program.
Objective: To examine the effect of movement direction in neurodynamic mobilization on upper limb mobility and pain.
Design: Quasi-experimental study
Methods: Twenty-two adults positive for neurodynamic test for the median nerve were recruited for participation in this study. Twenty-two subjects were allocated to the applied neurodynamic mobilization at limited side group (ANTLS, n=7), the applied neurodynamic mobilization at contralateral limited side group (ANTCLS, n=7), and the applied neurodynamic mobilization at bilateral side group (ANTBS, n=8). Before the intervention upper limb limited was measured neurodynamic test for the median nerve, pain was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), movement direction in neurodynamic mobilization was applied to each group, and then re-measured using neurodynamic test for the median nerve and VAS. Differences the Intra-groups before and between the intergroups after intervention were analyzed.
Results: In the ANTLS and ANTBS groups, a statistically significant increase in ROM and decrease in VAS score in the population before and after intervention were indicated. Statistically significant differences in VAS and ROM from before to after intervention were found among the ANTLS, ANTCLS, and ANTBS groups.
Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that movement direction in neurodynamic mobilization must be considered within the limits of its selected range of the neurodynamic exercise program.
Background: The importance of postural stabilization and cervical mobilization in subjects with pain from the anterior head posture is drawing more attention. However, studies on head and neck stabilizing intervention after mobilization are lacking.
Objective: To examine the effects of Kinesiotaping and posture setting exercise on forward head posture (FHP).
Design: Crossover Study Design
Methods: The subjects were 17 male and female college students in their 20s with FHP. They were randomized into the Kinesiology taping group (KTG) with 9 subjects and posture stabilizing exercise group (PSEG) with 8 subjects. The intervention was conducted for 4 weeks, and changes in pain, craniovertebral angle (CVA), and proprioception were observed before and after intervention.
Results: Pain was significantly reduced in the KTG and PSEG both before and after intervention. CVA and proprioception were significantly increased only in the PSEG. The differences in CVA and proprioception between the two groups were significant.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that the application of posture setting exercise could decrease pain, proprioceptive error and increase CVA on FHP