Background: Although it has been reported that both self-myofascial release (SMR) with foam rolling (FR) and active static hamstring stretching (e.g., jackknife stretching) are effective in improving hamstring flexibility, no study has compared the effects of these exercises.
Objectives: To compare the effects of SMR with FR and jack-knife stretching on hamstring flexibility.
Design: A Randomized controlled trial.
Methods: Subjects with hamstring tightness were divided into the SMR with the FR group (n=12) and the jack-knife stretching group (n=12). Subjects groups performed SMR with FR or jack-knife stretching according to group assignment. To identify changes in hamstring flexibility, the finger-to-floor distance (FFD) test, active knee extension (AKE) test, and passive straight leg raising (PSLR) test were performed at pre- and post-exercise.
Results: Significant increases occurred in knee extension angle during the AKE test and hip flexion angle during the PSLR test after exercise in both groups (P<.001). Additionally, FFD and anterior pelvic tilt during the FFD test significantly increased (P<.001); however, we observed no significant interaction and main effects for the groups (P>.05).
Conclusion: Both SMR with FR and jack-knife stretching are effective in improving hamstring flexibility in subjects with hamstring tightness.
Background: Patients with stroke may show impaired balance due to the limited range of motion of the ankle resulting from abnormal soft tissues surrounding the ankle joint. Changes in the viscoelasticity of soft tissues and decreased mobility of the ankle impair the balance and lead to problems in the daily life of patients with stroke. Joint mobilization and stretching are effective methods of improving balance by increasing the viscoelasticity of soft tissues and range of motion of the ankle.
Objectives: To effects of ankle joint mobilization and calf muscle stretching on balance in patients with stroke.
Design: A randomized controlled trial.
Methods: A total of 20 patients with stroke were randomly assigned into two groups. The joint mobilization group (JMG) underwent anteroposterior joint mobilization of the talocrural joint, while the stretching group (SG) received calf muscle stretching. Functional reach test (FRT), berg balance scale (BBS), and timed up and go test (TUG) were used to assess balance.
Results: The FRT, BBS, and TUG results significantly improved in the JMG and SG after invention (P<.05). However, the improvements were greater in the JMG group than those in the SG group (P<.05).
Conclusion: Joint mobilization was an effective intervention to improve soft tissue performance and range of motion of the ankle, thereby improving balance in patients with stroke.
Background: The chin tuck exercise is a therapeutic approach for improving swallowing function in patients with dysphagia. However, the clinical evidence of the effect is still lacking.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of a multidirectional chin tuck exercise on swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia.
Design: A two-group prospective study.
Methods: In total, 14 patients with post-stroke dysphagia were enrolled and assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group performed the chin tuck exercise in the vertical and diagonal directions, whereas the control group performed the exercise only in the vertical direction. The intervention was performed 20 minutes a day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. Videofluoroscopic Dysphagia Scale (VDS) and Penetration–Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores determined via a videofluoroscopic swallowing study were the outcome measures used for evaluating swallowing function.
Results: Post-intervention, the experimental group exhibited significantly better improvement in the pharyngeal phase score of VDS and PAS score than the control group.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the multidirectional chin tuck exercise is more effective than the vertical chin tuck exercise in improving the swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia.
Background: Stroke patients have dosiflexor weakness. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) for motor and sensory threshold stimulation has been applied to patients with stroke.
Objectives: To investigate effects of FES intervention for motor and sensory threshold on balance and gait in subacute patients with stroke.
Design: A randomized controlled trial.
Methods: In all, 34 patients with subacute stroke were recruited and randomly assigned to the motor threshold (MTG, n=17) and sensory threshold group (STG, n=17). The measured variables were static balance (BioRescue), dynamic balance (BBS), and gait (TUG test). The study period was 5 weeks, twice a day, 5 days a week.
Results: There was a significant difference in all variables except the speed variable (open eye Romberg test) after the intervention; MTG improved more significantly except for the speed variable of the Romberg test (open eye). BBS score increased significantly only in the MTG group after the intervention, and the increase was more significant in the MTG group than in the STG group. The TUG test significantly decreased in both groups after the intervention, and the decrease was more significant in the MTG group than in the STG group.
Conclusion: FES for motor threshold applied to patients with subacute stroke appears to be more effective in improving balance and gait ability than FES for sensory threshold.
Background: Although recent studies using virtual reality have been actively conducted, studies on exercise therapy interventions and changes in muscle characteristics in patients with scoliosis are limited.
Objectives: To investigate the effects of trunk and pelvic exercises program using virtual reality on the characteristics of paraspinal muscles in patients with scoliosis.
Design: A randomized controlled trial. Methods: Thirty college students with scoliosis were randomly assigned to the trunk and pelvic exercise program using virtual reality group (VRG; n=15) and the general stretching exercise group (SG; n=15). The intervention was conducted three times a week for 8 weeks for 30 min per session. The recorded variables were muscle tone (F), muscle stiffness (S), and muscle elasticity (D). The collected data were analyzed after statistical processing.
Results: In the cervical vertebrae, F showed significant differences in the amount of inter-group variation in the VRG compared that in the SG on the right side. The VRG showed significant increases in intra-group variation on both the right and left sides. S showed significant differences in the amount of inter-group variation in the VRG compared to that in the SG on the right side. With regard to the intra-group variation of F in the thoracic vertebrae, the right muscle in the VRG demonstrated significantly increased after the experiment, while D significantly increased in the left muscle in the VRG.
Conclusion: Pelvic and trunk exercises program using virtual reality may be applied a better therapeutic intervention for patients with scoliosis.
Background: Cervical spine mobilization is an effective intervention method to increase cervical range of motion (ROM). However, whether using a sling with cervical spine mobilization can provide a similar positive effect in improving ROM and muscle stiffness as conventional cervical spine mobilization has not yet been proven.
Objectives: To investigated the effects of sling with cervical spine lateral mobilization on improving neck ROM and muscle stiffness in healthy subjects.
Design: A two-group pre-posttest design.
Methods: A total of 20 healthy subjects were allocated to a sling with cervical spine mobilization (SWCM) group (n=10) and a cervical spine mobilization (CM) group (n=10). The mobilization exercise at grade Ⅳ+ amplitude was applied to the left-side and right-side C3-C4 and C4-C5 of each group for three sets. The mobilization exercise was performed for 30 seconds (frequency of two vibrations per second), with a 30-second resting time. The active cervical ROM, muscle tone, and muscle stiffness of the cervical region of each group was measured and compared before and after the intervention.
Results: The active cervical ROM of both groups significantly improved after the intervention (p<.05). However, no significant differences in the cervical active ROM, cervical muscle tone, and muscle stiffness were observed between two groups. Conclusion: The application of sling with cervical spine lateral mobilization is an intervention method that can be effectively used to improve the physiological movement of the neck, as well as cervical muscle tone and stiffness.
Background: Previous studies have been reported that when instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) and the self-myofascial release technique were used on the muscles. However, studies that applied the IASTM and self-stretching to the gastrocnemius muscle are thought to be necessary but there is no such previous study.
Objectives: To investigate the effects of IASTM and self-stretching on gastrocnemius muscle thickness and the range of motion of joint in dorsiflexion in healthy college student.
Design: Quasi-experimental design (single blind).
Methods: The subjects were healthy college students in their 20s with a healthy body. As for the experimental method in this study, comparison between before and after the experiment was performed to compare the effects of myofascial release using IASTM and stretching. The preliminary survey investigated the range of motion (ROM) of ankle joint of the subjects. The thicknesses of gastrocnemius muscles were measured using ultrasonography. One day after the preliminary survey, IASTM interventions and self-stretching interventions were randomly selected. If IASTM intervention is selected, the IASTM of the gastrocnemius muscle was applied for 5 minutes. After than, muscle thickness and the ankle dorsiflexion ROM were measured. Subjects were asked to take a break for about one day after performing the intervention. Self-stretching was applied to the gastrocnemius muscle for 5 minutes identically. After than, muscle thickness and the ankle dorsiflexion ROM were measured.
Results: The thickness of the gastrocnemius muscle decreased significantly IASTM intervention, and the ankle dorsiflexion ROM increased significantly IASTM intervention. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM increased significantly the selfstretching intervention. The amounts of change in ankle dorsiflexion ROM through the IASTM was significantly greater than that through self-stretching. Conclusion: In order to immediately increase muscle flexibility in a short time, the IASTM is more effective although the self-stretching method is also effective.
Background: Compression of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) enables lumbo-pelvic muscles to increase pelvic stability and reduce pain. Many previous studies assessed the effects of pelvic compression belts on the stabilization of the lumbar and SIJs. However, there are a lack of studies to date on the effects of pelvic compression taping (PCT).
Objectives: To investigate the effects of PCT on the muscle activity of lumbopelvic muscles during prone hip extension (PHE).
Design: Pre-post test design.
Methods: In total, 19 healthy male and female participants performed PHE with and without PCT. A surface electromyography system was used to record the muscle activity of multifidus, erector spinae, internal oblique abdominal, and gluteus maximus muscles, and the activities of these muscles before and after taping were compared.
Results: During PHE, the activities of the multifidus and erector spinae muscles (P<.05) significantly increased after taping, while that of the internal oblique abdominal muscle significantly decreased after taping (P<.05). However, the activity of the gluteus maximums muscle did not significantly increase or decrease after taping (P>.05).
Conclusion: PCT for the SIJ improves the stability of the lumbo-pelvic region, and the use of PCT with functional training would lead to positive clinical effects.
Background: Although the Schroth exercise is widely used in idiopathic scoliosis, the Schroth exercise with kinesiotaping is not. And, little research has examined their effectiveness.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of Schroth exercise with kinesiotaping on idiopathic scoliosis. Design: A randomized controlled trial.
Methods: Participants with hamstring tightness were allocated into the Schroth exercise with kinesiotaping group (SETG, n=12) and the schroth exercise group (SEG, n=11). Participants groups performed Schroth exercise with kinesiotaping or Schroth exercise according to group assignment. To identify changes in spine alignment and balance were performed at pre- and postexercise. Results: Significant changes occurred in spine alignment, balance ability (X mean, LOS forward, LOS right) after exercise in SETG (P<.05). SETG was a significant difference in balance ability (LOS right) than SEG.
Conclusion: Schroth exercise with kinesiotaping are effective in improving spine alignment and balance ability in idiopathic scoliosis.
Background: Kinesiology taping (KT)’s therapeutic effect on dysphagia is insufficient, and method of KT application is not yet clear.
Objectives: To review the considerations for the clinical application of KT for dysphagia rehabilitation.
Design: A systematic review.
Methods: The present study involved a systematic search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science) to identify relevant studies published on the use of KT for dysphagia rehabilitation between 2010 and 2020.
Results: Four articles (on child dysphagia, adult dysphagia, and healthy adult) were selected. It was found that when KT was applied with 15% tension to the orbicularis oris, mylohyoid, sternohyoid, and masseter muscles in children with dysphagia, lip closure and sucking function were improved. In addition, when KT with 80% tension was applied below the hyolaryngeal complex in healthy adults, significant activation of the suprahyoid muscle was reported. Application of KT with 50% tension to the digastric posterior bellies and the mylohyoid, geniohyoid, sternocleidomastoid, and upper trapezius muscles in adults with dysphagia showed an immediate improvement in vertical excursion and epiglottis rotation of the hyoid bone. Finally, application of KT with 70% tension to the hyolaryngeal complex in adults with dysphagia showed increased thickness of the suprahyoid and the tongue muscles.
Conclusion: The present review indicates that KT has significant potential as a therapeutic exercise method for patients with dysphagia in the future. However, the application of KT in such patients should take into account the shape, design, and degree of tension of the tape and the patient's capability and swallowing function.