The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of occipital bone stimulation by cervical stabilizing exercise on the muscle tone, stiffness, ROM, and cervical lordosis in patient with forward head posture( FHP). This study was a case study of a single patient with forward head posture. This study used a ABA' design, A and A' were the baseline phases and B was the intervention phase. The intervention was occipital bone stimulation by cervical stabilization exercise. It was administered once daily for 7 days. The therapist kept hands together, and placed the two index fingers under the subject's occipital bone. The subject performed the chin-in exercise with a maximum isometric contraction for 20 sec.The exercise was implemented by performing the movements 10 times as a set and repeating the set three times. The muscle tone was not significantly changed after intervention. However, the stiffness was decreased and lasted the effect lasted without intervention. The cervical flexion angle was increased, but the cervical extension angle was not significantly changed after the intervention. The left and right lateral flexion angles were increased and the effect lasted without any intervention. However, the left and right rotation angles were significantly changed after the intervention. Cervical lordosis increased not from 37° to 41° after the intervention. These results suggest that occipital bone stimulation by cervical stabilizing exercise had a positive effect on cervical stiffness, flexion and lateral flexion ROM, and lordosis in a patient with forward head posture.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sensory stimulation type on the learning of the elderly. The study implemented elderly verbal learning test by evenly dividing a total of 40 elderly people into auditory stimulation followed by visual stimulation group(AVG), visual stimulation followed by auditory stimulation group(VAG), simultaneous visual and auditory stimulation group(SG), and auditory stimulation group(AG). The result are as follows. SSG showed highest results in most of the test, followed by AVG, VAG, and AG. In particular, SG showed a statistically significant difference in immediate recall total score and short delay free recall score(p<.05). In the post-hoc test results of immediate recall total score, SG showed highest score with a statistical significance. AVG showed the second highest score, followed by VAG and AG and all showed a statistic significance(p<.05).In the post-hoc test results of short delay free recall score, SG and AVG showed a statistically significantly higher score than AG(p<.05). The results suggest that simultaneous stimulation of visual and auditory sense is more effective for improving the learning of the elderly people than visual stimulation followed by auditory stimulation or auditory stimulation followed by visual stimulation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity cardiac rehabilitation exercise on the cardiac function and the degree of fibrosis in an older white rat model. This study used male Sprague- Dawley white rats that were 50 weeks old. After the acute myocardial infarction induction, Twenty of the rats were randomly allocated into an experimental group and a control group, and each of the groups consisted of 8 rats. In the experimental group, the exercise was conducted for six weeks, 30 minutes a day, five days a week, using a Rotarod treadmill for animals. The degree of myocardial fibrosis was significantly repressed in the experimental group(13.69±1.90%) and in the control group(15.67±1.54%)(p<0.05). However, fractional shortening and ejection fraction did not show a significant difference. The results of this study suggest that cardiac rehabilitation with low intensity treadmill exercise repress the myocardial fibrosis.
This study aimed to examine the effects of thoracic cage mobilization on the respiratory function, spinal curve and spinal movement in patients with restrictive lung diseases. The subjects were ten community- dwelling elderly with a restrictive lung diseases when measured using a spirometer(FEV1/FVC≤65%, FVC<80%). They received an intervention over an eight-week period: three times a week and for 30 minutes a day. SPSS for Windows(ver. 19.0) was used to analyze all the collected data. Independent t-tests were used to examine changes before and after the intervention. The study's results showed statistically significant improvement(p<.05) in forced expiratory volume in 1 second(chage rate: .24±.25), thoracic curve(chage rate: -2.50±2.76), lumbar curve(chage rate: -.80±1.32), thoracic flexion(chage rate: 2.10± 1.52), thoracic extension(chage rate: -2.00±1.25), lumbar flexion(chage rate: 2.40±3.13) and lumbar extension(chage rate: -1.30±1.42). The results of this study suggest that the thoracic cage mobilization contribute to improve pulmonary function in patients with restrictive lung disease.
The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of Maitland orthopedic manual therapy, Silver Spike Point, dietary fiber and gymnastic exercise on the improvement of constipation. Forty patients with constipation participated in the study (Maitland Orthopedic Manual Therapy Group(n=10), Silver Spike Point Therapy Group(n=10), Dietary Fiber Group(n=10) and Gymnastics Exercise Group(n=10)). The assessment scale and weekly bowel frequency were measured before and after the experiment. Assessment scale was significantly increased in Silver Spike Point Therapy, Maitland orthopedic therapy, gymnastic exercise compare to dietary fiber. Weekly bowel frequency was significantly increased in gymnastic exercise compared to dietary fiber. The results of this study suggest that Silver Spike Point Therapy, Maitland orthopedic therapy, gymnastic exercise improve the symptom in patients with constipation.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of cervical alignment, pain, and physique to apply proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation( PNF) techniques in patients with forward head posture (FHP). The subjects of this study were 24 patients diagnosed with FHP. They were randomly divided into two groups: a PNF group(n=12) and a control group(n=12). The intervention was performed a total of 24 times, 30 min a day, six times a week for four weeks. Data on cervical alignment(forward head displacement, FHD), pain(visual analog scale, VAS), and physique(height, weight, and body mass index) were obtained pre- and post-intervention. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the groups and time. For FHD, the VAS, and physique(height and BMI), there was an interaction effect for the groups and time(p<.001, BMI: p<.05) and main effects for time(p<.001, BMI: p<.05). For weight, there were main effects of time(p<.01). For FHD(p<.01) and the VAS(p<.05), there were main effects for the groups. In the PNF group, there were significant improvements in FHD, VAS, and physique. In the control group, there was a significant increase in FHD. The results of this study indicated that PNF intervention using scapular and upper extremity patterns effective in FHP positively. The use of a therapeutic intervention on physique changes may also be effective in improving poor posture and help to better patients’ quality of life.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined wedge on the range of motion in ankle and knee joint, ankle eversion moment and knee adduction moment, and center of pressure excursion of foot for genu varus among adult men during gait. This study was carried out with 10 adult men for genu varus in a motion analysis laboratory in J university. The subjects of the experiment were measured above 5cm width between the knees on contact of both medial malleolus of ankle while standing. The width of their knees in neutral position was measured without the inversion or eversion of the subtalar joint by the investigator. The subjects of the experiment were ten who were conducted randomly for standard insole, insole with 10° lateral on rear foot wedge, insole at 10°lateral on rear foot and 5° medial on fore foot wedge. Before and after intervention, changes on the range of motion in ankle and knee joint, ankle eversion moment and knee adduction moment, and center of pressure excursion were measured. In order to compare analyses among groups; repeated one-way ANOVA and Scheffé post hoc test were used. As a result, combined wedge group was significantly decreased compared to control wedge group in terms of knee varus angle in mid-stance(p<.05). Combined wedge group was significantly decreased compared to lateral wedge group in terms of ankle eversion moment in whole stance(p<.05). Combined wedge group was significantly decreased compared to lateral wedge group in terms of knee adduction moment in whole stance(p<.05). Combined wedge group was significantly decreased compared to lateral wedge in terms of center of pressure excursion in whole stance(p<.05). The results of this study suggest that combined wedge for genu varus decreased ankle eversion moment and knee adduction moment upon center of pressure excursion. We hypothesize that combined wedge may also be effective in the protection excessive ankle pronation.
c-Fos is known to related to synaptic plasticity and apoptosis in damage from ischemia or external injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether needle electrode electrical stimulation(NEES) is effective in increasing the number of c-Fos response cells and c-Fos expression in striatum after global ischemia in rats. There were no treatment and occlusion in the control group, global ischemia(GI) group were no treatment after carotid artery occlusion, and needle electrode electrical stimulation(NEES) group were treated with NEES after GI induced. The number of striatum c-Fos response cells and c-Fos protein expression significantly decreased in the NEES group compared to the GI group after 12, 24, 48 hours. The results of the present study suggest that NEES is ineffective in improving global ischemia in rats and may also be ineffective in the globally ischemic human brain.
This study aims to investigate the effects of ankle foot orthosis(AFO) on the activities of tibialis anterior(TA), soleus(Sol), rectus femoris(RF) and biceps femoris(BF) during stairs descending. The activities of TA, Sol, RF and BF were initially measured while descending 4 stairs without using AFO. The activities of the same muscles were then measured again while descending 4 stairs while using AFO. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyze the results in order to examine the differences between the with using AFO and without using AFO. Although the activities of TA, Sol and RF were relatively lower while using AFO than without using AFO, only the differences in Sol and RF activities were significant(p<0.05). The activity of BF was relatively higher while using AFO compared to the activity of BF observed without using AFO. However, difference was not significant(p>0.05). Conclusion of this study was observed since AFO’s ground reaction force absorption during stairs descending reduced the need to use So and RF that is related to shock absorption. BF activity was increased with AFO than without during standing forward to correct the trunk stability.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Maitland mobilization and Kaltenborn-Evjenth mobilization on the SLR angle. Subjects randomly divided into Kaltenborn-Evjenth group(n=8) and Maitland group(n=7). The mean height, age, body weight was 176.00±5.10 cm, 22.75±1.83 years, 72.63±10.65 kg respectively in Kaltenborn-Evjenth group. The mean height, age, body weight was 175.00±5.60 cm, 22.29 ±3.68 years, 78.00±12.36 kg respectively in Maitland group. Hip joint accessary movements with Grade Ⅲ or IV were applied depend on the patient’s condition to the restricted direction for 1 minute each set, and performed 5 set in a Maitland group. Hip joint anteroposterior gliding with Grade Ⅲ were applied 60 for 1 minutes each set, and performed 5 set in a Kaltenborn-Evjenth group. The angle of first pain was referred to as P1 and subjects were pointed out that they could not bend the knee anymore, then examiner measure SLR angle. The SLR was significantly increased in the Maitland group compared to the Kaltenborn- Evjenth group after intervention(p<.05). In a within group difference, SLR significantly increased in the both groups(p<.05). These results indicated that Maitland mobilization could be recommended the excellent technique to increase the hip flexion in patient with hip hypo-mobility.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening and stretching exercises on forward head angle and static·dynamic balance ability. 21 adults with the forward head posture were participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to strengthening exercise group I(n=11) and stretching exercise group II (n=10) respectively. Each group were underwent six intervention over the period of 2 weeks, each session lasting 30 minutes. During a preliminary examination, forward head angle and static∙dynamic balance were measured, and a post examination was conducted that involved same procedure as preliminary examination. There were significant differences in forward head angle after exercise in both groups. In the strengthening group, center of gravity total sway distances was significantly changed under all conditions. In the stretching group, center of gravity total sway distances was significantly changed when subjects had their eyes open while standing on an foam surface. There were significant changes in center of gravity sway velocities in the strengthening group under all conditions, and the same was true in the stretching group only when the subjects had their eyes open while standing on an foam surface. In the comparison between groups, eyes closed while standing on a firm surface was significantly different. There was a significant difference in dynamic balance of the stretching group when the subjects tilted their bodies forward, and there was a statistically significant difference between groups under the same condition. The results of this study suggest that forward head posture can be corrected through therapeutic exercise, and muscle strengthening exercise more effective in improving static balance of forward head posture more than stretching exercise.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the screen size of smart devices on the bending angle of the cervical spine. The subjects of this study were 30 healthy adults(15 men and 15 women) who used smartphones and tablet PC(personal computer). The changes in the bending angle of the upper and lower cervical spine were measured in the subjects after they had used a smartphone and a tablet PC for 300 seconds each. To make sure that all subjects began in the same starting position, an angle-measuring instrument was used to set the angles of the ankle, knee, hip, and arm joints to 90 degree. The subjects were asked to keep the trunk straight. They were asked to hold a smartphone in their hand and to bend their neck so that they could look down at the screen. Once they began using the smartphone in this manner, they were free to change their posture. We used a paired t-test to compare the bending angle of the cervical spine on subjects who used smartphones and tablet PC in the longterm and short-term there production error of cervical and the significance level was cervical. The results showed that, when using a smartphone and a tablet PC for 300 seconds, there was no significant difference in the bending angle of the upper cervical spine(p>.05), although there was a significant difference in the bending angle of the lower cervical spine(p<.05).
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy and ball exercise on women experiencing menstrual discomforts, thereby identifying the validity of these methods as interventions against menstrual discomforts, with a particular goal of presenting basic data for clinical use. Twenty university students in their 20s were assigned to two therapy groups in a sequence via simple random sampling; ten subjects attended a ball exercise combined with music therapy group and the other ten subjects attended a music therapy group. Ball exercises were conducted 3 times per week for a total of 12 times, starting from 3 weeks before the expected first day of the menstrual period and ending on the last day of the menstrual period. Similarly, the subjects participated in music therapy by listening to music for 35 minutes per session and 3 sessions per week, starting from 3 weeks before the expected first day of the menstrual period and ending on the last day of the menstrual period. Five out of six categories of menstrual discomforts were significantly decreased in both music therapy and ball exercise, the exception being changes in the autonomic nervous system, while those in the music therapy group showed a significant difference only in the category of behavioral changes. The results of the present study demonstrate that the ball exercise combined with music therapy more effective in improving menstrual discomforts than the music therapy group.
The purpose of this article was to investigate the effects of Maitland’s transverse movement on change of pain, trunk flexion movement and Cobb’s angle in patient with upper thoracic scoliosis. The subject are 37 years old with chronic low back pain participated in this study and has no experience surgery within the last six months due to back pain. 10 set was applied 10 times on the T3-T5 applied the transverse movement with grade Ⅳ to each segment by skilled physical therapist. Transverse movement was applied convex toward the concave side. Pressure pain threshold was reduced from 4/10 to 2/10. Trunk flexion range that is the distance between the middle finger and floor was increase from 7.3cm to 2cm. Cobb’s angle was decreased from degree 18 to 16. This result demonstrated that the Maitland’s transverse movement was benefit to reduce the pain and Cobb’s angle, and to increase the trunk flexion movement.