Background: Although cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is reported to have positive effects on mental functions such as depression and sleep improvement, detailed studies regarding awakening, attention and concentration among brain waves reflecting brain activity are lacking.
Objective: To examine the effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on various electroencephalograms (EEGs) reflecting brain activities.
Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial (single blind)
Methods: This study selected 30 healthy adult women in their 20s who volunteered for this experiment. A total of 30 subjects were randomly assigned to three groups (Sham group, 0.5 Hz CES group, and 100 Hz CES group). EEGs were measured before and after the single CES, and the results were compared and analyzed.
Results: The relative theta, alpha, and gamma waves indicated no significant differences in the interaction effects between time and group. The relative fast alpha wave only showed significant differences in the interaction effects between time and group in P4. The relative slow beta wave only indicated statistically significant differences in the interaction effects between time and group in T3 and T4. The relative mid and fast beta waves showed statistically significant differences in the interaction effects between time and group in all areas.
Conclusions: These results suggest that a CES of 0.5 Hz awakens consciousness and has a positive influence on brain activity, while a CES of 100 Hz has a positive influence on thinking activity accompanying mental load during concentrating on one subject.
Background : Although plank exercises is reported to the changes in muscle activity of the deep muscles and superficial muscles among the core muscles. However, no study has examined the effects of forearm plank exercise on tone and stiffness in the superficial back line muscle.
Objective: To compare the effects of sling forearm plank exercises and mat forearm plank exercises on the superficial back line muscle tone and stiffness.
Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial (single blind)
Methods: The subjects were randomized to sling forearm plank exercise group (N = 8) or mat forearm plank exercise group (N = 8). The measurements were taken for each research group following exercises: the muscle tone and stiffness of upper lumbar muscles, lower lumbar muscles, long head of biceps femoris, and medial part of gastrocnemius among the superficial back line muscles.
Results: Sling forearm plank exercise group Indicated statistically significant increases in stiffness of medial part of gastrocnemius (p<.05). However, mat forearm plank exercise group reported no statistically significant in muscle tone and stiffness of all measured muscles. No significant differences in measured variables were found between the groups.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the forearm plank exercise performed with an unstable surface in the defined sling can increase the stiffness of calf muscle, but it is unlikely to achieve increases in muscle tone and stiffness of the overall superficial back line muscles.
Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is also called as aging related memory damage. Decreased cognitive function due to aging is known to be associated with the frontal lobe. Alpha wave is generated in the dominance in the frontal lobe or a wide range of regions in the brain, it should be doubted that the brain function might be degraded.
Objective: To determine the effect of sensory stimulation type on learning and brain activity pattern of elderly persons with MCI.
Design: Randomized Controlled Trial (single blind)
Methods: Twenty elderly persons aged more than 65 with MCI were randonmized to simultaneous visual/auditory stimulation group (SVASG) and or auditory stimulation group (ASG). Ten peoples were assigned to each group and lectroencephalogram test was performed to individuals. In the electroencephalogram test, electroencephalography of prior to sensory stimulation, and during sensory stimulation were measured to compare brain activity pattern according to the study groups and measurement period.
Results: The relative alpha power due to a sensory stimulation type showed that the SVASG significantly decreased in the left frontal lobe and the left parietal lobe statistically compared to those of the ASG while sensory stimulation was given (p<.05). The relative beta power due to a sensory stimulation type showed that the SVASG significantly increased in the left and right frontal lobes, the left and right parietal lobes, and the left temporal lobe statistically compared to those of the ASG while sensory stimulation was given (p<.05).
Conclusions: Electroencephalographic analysis showed that the type of sensory stimulation can affect the brain activity pattern. However, the effects were not studied that which brain activity pattern help to improved cognitive function of elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment.
Background: Despite frequent shoulder injuries of rotator cuff muscle of golfers by the result of overuse and poor swing mechanics, there is little research on shoulder specific rehabilitation exercises for injured rotator cuff muscle and golf swing
Objective: To examined the effect of rehabilitation exercise for golfers on the X factor and ground reaction force (GRF) according to phase of the golf swing.
Design: Crossover study Methods: The participants were 13 amateur golfers selected for a 4 week rehabilitation exercise for golfers. A rehabilitation exercise for golfers consisting of 5 steps and 4 items (sleeper stretch, full side plank, push up to plank, high plank knee unders) were applied to all participants. A three dimensional motion analyzer and force platform (SMART-E, BTS, Italy) were used to measure the X factor (angle between shoulder and pelvis at top of back swing) and GRF according to phase of the golf swing. All dependent variables were measured before and after exercise. The collected data was analyzed using the paired t test and SPSS 21.0.
Results: The GRF had a statistically significant increase in the impact phase and ratio impact/weight after rehabilitation exercise for golfers (p<.05). The Xfactor, GRF in top of back swing and finish were no significant differences between before and after exercise (p>.05).
Conclusions: These results suggested that rehabilitation exercise for golfers was effective for increasing GRF in the impact phase and ratio impact/weight for amateur golfer.
Background: Previous researchers have investigated the mechanical and neurophysiological effects of manual mobilization, however little research has been done on muscle tone and muscle stiffness.
Objective: To compare the effects of posterior-anterior (PA) mobilization with weight bearing on sling and conventional PA mobilization on the bed. Design: Randomized controlled trial (single blind)
Methods: The subjects were 16 male university students and randomized to sling mobilization group (SMG, n=8) or conventional mobilization group (CMG, n=8). SMG received PA mobilization using a sling and CMG received traditional mobilization on the bed during lumbar mobilization.
Results: Both left and right muscle tones of SMG increased, but left muscle tone of SMG were increased and right muscle tone was decreased after intervention. In addition, both left and right muscle stiffness of SMG were also increased, however left muscle stiffness of SMG was increased and right muscle stiffness was decreased. The muscle tone and muscle stiffness of SMG were higher than those of DMG, especially the right side was statistically significantly higher. Extension of SMG, extension and flexion of CMG were increased statistically significantly except for Flexion of SMG (p<.05). There were no significant differences between the groups in Extension and Flexion. Conclusions: This study suggests that lumbar spine PA mobilization using sling is beneficial in improving muscle tone, muscle stiffness, and trunk movement.
Background : Several studies have suggested different arguments for the effect of stretching exercises and core muscle exercises on flexibility and balance ability.
Objective : To determine the effects of stretching exercises and core muscle exercise on flexibility and balance ability.
Design : Quasi experimental research
Method : The study applied exercise interventions (three sessions per week for 6 weeks) on 40 subjects. The subjects were divided into stretching and core muscle exerciseing groups to identify the change of flexibility and balance ability. Sit- and- reach test results and hip hyperextension were measured for identifying changes in flexibility, and the Romberg test and Pedalo stabilizer were used for changes in balance ability.
Results : Both the stretching exercise and core muscle exercise groups showed a statistically significant increase in flexibility (p<.05). However, the stretching exercise group showed a statistically significant increase in balance ability (p<.05), whereas the core muscle exercise group showed partially statistically significant differences in this par t(p>.05). In the analysis of the differences in the amount of change in flexibility, based on the types of exercise, stretching exercises showed a significant difference (p<.05), whereas a significant difference was not found in the amount of change in balance ability (p>.05).
Conclusions : These findings indicate that stretching exercises are the more effective intervention for improving and maintaining flexibility, whereas there is no difference between stretching and core muscle exercises with respect to improving balance ability.
Background: In some clinical guidelines followed in clinical practice, nonsurgical treatments are recommended as the primary intervention for patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). However, the effect of a therapeutic exercise program based on stabilization of the lumbar spine for treatment of multilevel LDH has not been evaluated thoroughly.
Objective: To investigate the effects of therapeutic exercise on pain, physical function, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a patient with multilevel LDH.
Design: Case Report
Methods: A 43-year-old female presented with low back pain, radicular pain and multilevel LDH (L3–L4, L4–L5, L5–S1). The therapeutic exercise program was conducted. in 40-min sessions, three times a week, for 12 weeks. Low back and radicular pain, lumbar disability, and physical function were measured before and after 6 and 12 weeks of the exercise program. MRI was performed before and after 12 weeks of the program.
Results: After 6 and 12 weeks of the therapeutic exercise, low back and radicular pain and lumbar disability had decreased, and lumbar range of motion (ROM) was improvedbilaterally, compared with the initial values. Also improved at 6 and 12 weeks were isometric lumbar strength and endurance, and the functional movement screen score. The size of disc herniations was decreased on MRI obtained after 12 weeks of therapeutic exercise than on the pre-exercise images.
Conclusions: We observed that therapeutic exercise program improved spinal ROM, muscle strength, functional capacity, and size of disc herniation in LDH patient.
Background: Stroke patients usually have arm weakness, which affects trunks and arms. Objective: To investigate the effects of paretic side and non-paretic side arm training on trunk control and upper limb functions.
Design: Randomized Controlled Trial (single blind).
Methods: Twenty patients with stroke in hospital were enrolled in the study. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to paretic side arm training group (PATG, n = 10) or non-paretic side arm training group (NATG, n = 10). Trunk impairment scale (TIS) was used for trunk control, and box and block test (BBT) was used for upper limb function. Training was conducted for 4 weeks.
Results: PATG showed significant difference in TIS (static balance, dynamic balance, coordination, total score) and BBT. NATG showed significant differences in static balance, and dynamic balance and total score except for coordination and BBT. PATG also showed a more significant difference in BBT and coordination and total score than NATG.
Conclusions: The arm training performed on the paretic side are more effective than those performed on the non-paretic side in improving both upper limb function and trunk control in stroke patients.
Background: There have been many studies on self-myofascial release (SMR) stretching, but there are few comparative studies on the effects of massages using a release ball, which is a type of the SMR method.
Objective: To investigate the immediate effects of release ball massage and self- stretching on proprioceptive sensory, hamstring’s temperature, range of motion (ROM) muscle strength,.
Design: Crossover study.
Methods: Thirty women in 20’s at S University in Busan voluntarily participated in the study. Participants were random to release ball group (n=15) or selfstretching group (n=15). Both groups performed 3 sets of exercises, stretching for 30 seconds and resting for 15 seconds in each position. The proprioceptive sensory, temperature of the hamstring muscle, ROM, and strength were measured before exercise, 5 minutes after exercise, and 30 minutes after exercise.
Results: Release ball group showed significant differences in muscle length and temperature over time (p<.05). The comparison between two group over time showed significant differences in muscle length, temperature, and muscle strength (p<.05).
Conclusions: These results demonstrate that release ball massage and selfstretching are beneficial for improving hamstring's temperature, ROM and muscle strength.
Background: Surgery has been known as an inefficient approach to reduce back pain in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis; therefore, non-surgical treatments are necessary. However, there has been little research to analyze the effect of non-surgical treatments on lumbar spinal stenosis pain.
Objective: To identify the effectiveness of 2 physiotherapeutic treatment approaches to relieve pain due to lumbar spinal stenosis.
Design: Randomized controlled trial
Methods: The participants were 36 lumbar spinal stenosis patients who were randomized in the joint mobilization group (JMG) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group (TENSG). Joint mobilization (JM) was conducted at the posteroanterior joint in the spinous process of the lumbar spine with stenosis. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was applied on the lumbar spine with stenosis at a high frequency and intensity.
Results: Visual analog scale (VAS) pain score significantly decreased in both groups, and the VAS value decreased more after JMG than that after TENSG. The pain thresholds of both groups also significantly increased, and that of JMG increased more compared to TENSG. In both the groups, significant improvements in VAS and pain thresholds were found, and JMG showed better results than TENSG.
Conclusions: JM and TENS showed significant relief in both pain threshold and painpain, and JM showed more advanced relief compared to TENS.